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BIO 2 test 1

What makes something alive? use energy, made up of cells, process genetic or hereditary information, reproduction/replication, they are a product of evolution
Where do cells come from? Other cells
Pasteurs experiment Nutrient broth, spontaneous generation, tested cells come from other cells.
Insight on natural selection acts on individuals, evolution acts on the population as a whole
Fitness The ability to produce viable offspring
adaptation trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
Why is water an efficient solvent? hydrogen bonds and strong polarity
formula for ph -Log[H+]
Amino formula and properties NH2, acts as a base, tends to attract a proton form + charged molecule
Carboxyl formula and porperties Co2H, double bond one O other part of OH- group, Acts as an acid, tends to lose a proton in solution to form negatively charged molecule (loses from OH)
Carbonyl 1. Aldehydes 2.Keytones 1. COH double bonded O react to form lager molecules 2.CO double bonded O
Hydroxyl Alcohols, OH, highly polar, makes compounds more soluble through hydrogen bonding, may also act as weak acid and drop a proton
Phosohate PO4-2, store large amounts of energy
Sulfhydryl SH, Thiols, can form disulfide bonds that contribute to protein structure
What is the structure of amino acids? Common core structure: a H group, NH2 (amino functional group), COOH (carboxyl functional group), a distinctive R gtoup (side chain)
Nature of side chains properties of amino acids vary because their R-Groups vary. 20 unique
Non-Polar side chains No charged or electro negative atoms to form hydrogen bonds
Polar side chains Partial charges can form H bonds, OH, NH2 groups
Acidic electrically charged side chains Charged side chains that can form ionic and hydrogen bonds, overall -
Basic electrically charged side chains charged side chains that can form ionic and hydrogen bonds, overall
monomer a molecule subunit such as an amino acid, a nucleotide, or sugar
polymer when a large number of monomers are bonded together
How does polymerization occur? via condensation reaction between H on the Amino group and O- on the Carboxyl group
Hydrolysis Reactions that breaks apart polymers
three key points about peptide bonded backbone R-Group orientation, Directionality (amino group NH3+ on one end, carboxyl group COO- on the other), flexibility
Different protein shapes Tata box (saddle shaped; binds DNA). Porin (donut shaped, forms pore) Trypsin (globular, binds substrates) Collagen (fibrous, provides structural support)
Secondary protein structures A-helix B-pleated sheets (Caused by H-bonds between CO and NH froups close together
Tertiary structure interactions between R-Groups or R group and peptide backbone
Van der wals interactions weak attractions that occur because the constant notion of electrons fives molecules tiny asymmetry large number of these interactions can increase the stability of the structure
what are Primary bonds stabilized by? Peptide bonds
what are secondary structures stabilized by? hydrogen bonding between groups along the peptide bonded backbone thus depends on primary structure
What are tertiary structures stabilized by? bonds between other interactions between R-groups, or between r groups and the peptide bonded backbone thus depends on primary structure
what are quaternary structures stabilized by? bonds and other interacions between peptide backbones of different polypeptides thus depends on primary structure
What is correct folding of proteins important? If it is not folded correctly it cannon function correctly
misfolding can be infectious alternate the forms of normal proteins that are present in healthy individuals
What tasks are proteins essential for in a cell? Catalysis, Defense, movement, signaling, structure, transport
what do the structures of proteins determine? the functionality of a protein, they have diverse function because of the diverse structures and chemical properties
What are nucleic acids made of? Nucleic acids
what is the differnece between the sugars that form rna and dna Dna DEOXYribo does not have an o on its second carbon group and ribose does.
What are the three pyrimidines? cytosine, Uracil (RNA), Thymine (DNA)
What are the two purines? Guanine and adenine
What do each purine bind to? Guanine to cytosine, Adeninte to Thymine or urasil depending if it is DNA or RNA
What is a phosphodiester linkage? the bond formed between the hydroxyl group C5') on one sugar to the phosphate group of another nucleotide C3')
what is the linkage order of the sugar- phosphate backbone of RNA? C5'- phosphate to C3' sugar, c3' end being the newest members of the chain
What did watson and Crick discover? DNA runs anti-parallel,forms a double helix,only purines and pryimadines can match up at the correct distance
What is DNA stabilized by? The hydrophobic interactions in its interior and the hydrogen bonding between the purines and pyrimadines
What are Monosaccharides Monomers of charbohydrates
Cabonyl group C double bond O
What is the difference between aldose and ketose Aldose: Carbonyl group at end of carbon chain (C1), Ketose: carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon chain ex C2
Glycosidic linkage the polymerization of monosaccharides via condensation reaction between two hydroxyl groups
Starch Polysaccharide used for energy storage in plant cells (Alpha glucose)
glycogen Polysaccharide used for energy storage in animal cells (Alpha Glucose)
Cellulose Polysaccharide used in structural support in cell walls of plants and many algae (Beta Glucose)
Chitin Polysaccharide, used for structural support in the cell walls of fungi and exo-skeletons of insects and crustaceans (Beta)
What version of glucose can animals easily break down Alpha
What does alpha vs Beta versions of polysacharides mean? the Alpha versions form glycosidic linkages on the same side, in beta versions one of the molecules must be inverted for the reaction to occur.
what is an ester linkage Any of a class of organic compounds corresponding to the inorganic salts and formed from an organic acid and an alcohol, usually with the elimination of water.(fats carbohydrates)
amphipathic containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
What are the most abundant elements in the human body? 1. hydrogen, 2 oxygen, 3. carbon
why is it biochemically important atoms have unpaired electrons their outer shell? Atoms with unpaired electrons are reactive because they readily form covalent or ionic bonds with other atoms in order to “fill the vacancies” in their outer electron shell
If delta G < 0 then the reaction is spontaneous (exergonic) and can proceed without the addition of energy to the system
If delta G > 0 then the reaction is unfavorable (endoergonic) and will not proceed without the addition of energy to the system
how is converted from carbon in CO2 into a more reactive form? Reduce the carbon via a REDOX reaction
Amino functional group NH2
Carboxyl functional group C double bond O OH
Carbonyl functional groups Aldehydes, Keytones Aldehydes :C double bond o, H Keytones Cdouble bond O
Hydroxyl functional group OH
phosphate functional group PO4
sulfhydryl functional groups SH
What version of amino acids to cells use? Left handed versions to make proteins (Right handed D- used in neurotransmitters)
what are Peptide bonds? covalent bonds that link amino acids together
what are Chaperones and chaperonins? classes of proteins that help other proteins fold properly
What is the difference between an aldose and a keytose? Alsdose have the carbonyl group bonded to the ends of the carbon chain. A keytose has the carbonyl group bonded in the middle of the carbon chain.
What is the difference between the alpha and bata versions of glucose Alpha version has the OH bonded below the plane of the ring, beta versions have the OH bonded above the ring.
how do Polysaccharides form? from monosaccharides through a condensation reaction between hydroxyl groups to create a glycosidic linkage (1,4 linkage)
What is Diffusion Permeable solutes moving across a membrane down their concentration gradient
what is Osmosis? movement of water across a membrane from low-to-high solute concentration
how does cholesterol effect membrane fluidity? it fills spaces between phospholipids and is very rigid
what are the tree components of a nucleotide? pentose sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
Created by: jpf11230
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