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Social Studies OGT Vocabulary
|a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Locke, and Newton, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
|Rights that people supposedly have under natural law.
|an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theorists who used this concept include Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
|Natural Rights (also important to know -> his ideas of a natural right to ‘life, liberty, and property” influenced Thomas Jefferson when he wrote the Declaration of Independence)
|his main contribution to the Enlightenment was his ideas about Social Contract theory
|Consent of the Governed
|the authority of a government should depend on the consent of the people
|a state/country in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president instead of a monarch.
|his main contribution to the Enlightenment was his idea of Checks and Balances
|a form of democracy in which the people all decide and vote on all policy initiatives
|a form of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
|a general system of government in which the whole population or all the eligible members of a state/country have a voice in government, typically through elected representatives.
|an Enlightenment concept that means "a clean slate", which is an absence of preconceived ideas or predetermined goals
|State of Nature
|a concept in moral and political philosophy that was often used by Enlightenment thinkers, that means the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies and governments came into existence.
|the principle that the greater number should exercise greater power.
|the power or scope to act as one pleases. It is basically another way to say “freedom”
|Separation of Powers
|an act of giving the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
|Checks and Balances
|counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, in order to help make sure that no one individual or group becomes too powerful