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Unit One

government the institution through which a society makes an enforces its public policies
public policy all of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved
direct democracy will of people translates into public policy
majority rule in a democracy, the majority of the people will be right more often than they will be wrong, and will be right more often that will any one person or small group
democracy form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people
dictatorship a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority
federal government a form of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments
minority rights
representative government system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections
unitary government a centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency
confederation a joining of several groups for a common puspose
initiative a process in which a certain number of qualified voters sign petitions in favor of a proposed statute or constitutional amendment, which then goes directly to the ballot
presidential government a form of government in which the executive and legislative branches of the government are separate, independent, and coequal
parliamentary government a form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, and that official's cabinet
referendum a process by which a legislative measure is referred to the State's voters for final approval or rejection
articles of confederation plan of government adopted by, the Continental Congress after the American Revolution; established "a firm league of friendship" among the States, but allowed few important powers to the central government
confederal government
jurisdiction the authority of a court to hear a case
Shay's rebellion
consitution the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
framers group of delegates who drafted the United States Constitution at the Philadelphia convention in 1787
Virginia Plan called for a three-branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each State's membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the central government
New Jersey Plan called for a unicameral legislature in which each State would be equally represented
James Madison
George Washington
Roger Sherman
Connecticut/Great Compromise agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate, in which States would be represented equally, and a House, in which States would be represented based on population
Slave Trade Compromise
3/5th Compromise an agreement at the Constitutional Convention to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining a State's population
unicameral an adjective describing a legislative body with one chamber
bicameral an adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
ratification formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
federalist those persons who supported the ratification of the Constitution in 1787-1788
anti-federalist those persons opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787-1788
referendum a process by which a legislative measure is referred to the State's voters for final approval or rejection
quorum least number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business; majority
federalism a system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional government
division of powers basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis (in US between National Government and the States)
Bill of Attainder a legislative act that inflicts punishment without a court trial
concurrent power the power that both the National Government and the States possess and exercise
Loving vs. Va
cooperative federalism
interstate compacts formal agreement entered into with the consent of Congress, between or among States, or between a State and a foreign state
extradition the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is returned to that State
delegated power the power, expressed, implied, or inherent, granted to the National Government by the Constitution
necessary and proper clause constitutional clause that gives Congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
Ex Post Facto Clause
Supremacy Clause a provision of the U.S. Constitution that states that the Constitution, federal law, and treaties of the United States are the "supreme Law of the Land"
Fletcher vs. Peck
categorical grant one type of federal grants-in-aid; made for some specific, closely defined, purpose
full faith and credit clause the second part of the constitutional guarantee of religious freedom, which guarantees to each person the right to believe whatever her or she choose to believe in matters of religion
Defense of Marriage Act
enumerated power
inherent power power the Constitution is presumed to have delegated to the National Government because it is the government of a sovereign state within the world community
reserved power the power that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government and does not deny to the States
McCulloch vs. MD
block grant one type of federal grants-in-aid for some particular but broadly defied area of public policy
privilages and immunities clause constitution's stipulation that all citizens are entitled to certain "privileges and immunities" regardless of their State residence; no State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who live in other States
implied power the delegated power of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the Constitution; those "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed power
Habeas Corpus Act you must be told why you're being arrested
exclusive power the power that can be exercised by the National Government alone
Gibbons vs. Ogden
grants-in-aid program grants of federal money or other resources to States, cities, counties, and other local units
project grant one type of federal grants-in-aid; made for specific projects to States, localities, and private agencies who apply for them
Created by: mkpoliz
Popular American Government sets




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