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Pathology

Neoplasia

QuestionAnswer
suffix ending in -oma indicates... tumor, benign or malignant
prefix adeno indicates... tumor of glandular epithelial origin
a malignant tumor of epithelial origin carcinoma
a benign tumor of glandular epithelial origin adenoma, papillary adenoma, and cystadenoma
a benign tumor of fibrous connective tissue fibroma
a malignant tumor of fat cells liposarcoma
a malignant tumor of bone osteogenic sarcoma
a benign tumor of smooth muscle leiomyoma
a malignant tumor of striated muscle lymphangiosarcoma
malignant tumors of blood cells lekukemias, lymphomas
What is the name of the histological scale for malignant tumors Broders grade
which grade is anaplastic?... and what does that mean? 4; dense chromatin
histologic change indicating neoplastic change in the cells showing it cellular dysplasia
how can squamous epithelial dysplasia be classified mild, moderate, severe, and classified by Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) I-III
denotes malignant change in cells but no cellular invasion into adjacent tissue carcinoma in situ (stage 1)
5 suggestive signs of possible malignant change in a pre-existing benign melanocytic nevus Asymmetry, Borders, Color, Diameter, Enlargement/elevation
Brief explanation of TNM System of Staging malignant tumors Tumor size, presence of lymph Node, hematogenous Metastases
What are the 5 common metastased sites? adrenal, brain, liver, lung, bone
control of cell growth involves what 5 types of proteins growth factors, growth factor receptors, intracellular signal transducers, transcription factors, cell cycle control proteins
normal gene that encodes one of the 5 classes of proteins protooncogene
Where can the mutation to oncogene occur? promotor or coding part of the proto-oncogene
4 ways oncogenes differ from proto-oncogenes... mutation, overexpressed, expressed at inappropriate place, or time
what encodes a protein that prevents a cell from going to G1 to S phase...; if this mutates what happens?... where was this discovered? RB gene;uncontrolled mitotic activity; in relation to retinoblastoma
list an important tumor suppressor that is often mutated in human cancers TP53
What 5 families of DNA viruses contain members which may be oncogenic HPV, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, Herpes (EBV), HBV and HCV
What are anti-oncogenes and what are 2 examples growth inhibiting regulator genes; p53 gene, FHIT gene
What are targets of oncogenic factors? proto-oncogenes, anti-oncogenes, DNA repair genes, Genes regulating apoptosis, Angiogenesis
what are stages of tumor cell transformation? DNA damage and cell mutation, activation of oncogenes, malignant tumor
list some examples of chemical carcinogens polycyclic hydrocarbons(procarcinogens), aromatic amines (procarcinogens), Aflatoxin B1 (procarcinogens), nitrosamine, paraban
What paraneoplastic syndrome can result in small cell lung cancer SIADH, Cushing syndrome
What paraneoplastic syndrome can result in lung, head, neck, ovarian cancers hypercalcemia
What paraneoplastic syndrome can result in pancreatic and lung cancers? venous thrombosis
What paraneoplastic syndrome can result in autoimmune production of antibodies against the motor end plate? myasthenia gravis
What paraneoplastic syndrome can result in antibodies against the voltage gated calcium channels in the presynaptic terminal? Eaton Lambert syndrome
What tumor marker is for prostate-specific hormone? PSA
What tumor marker is for ALPHA FETAL PROTEIN AFP
What tumor marker is for colorectal and stomach CEA
What tumor marker is for thyroid Calcitonin
What tumor marker is for ovarian CA-125
What tumor marker is for pancreas, colon CA-19-9
Created by: abva