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Civil War

Mr. Epstein APUSH

TermDefinition
Tariff of Abominations a protective tariff passed by Congress, designed to protect industry in the northern United States, had negative effects on Southern economy.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest South threatened to secede in response to the Tariff of Abominations
Webster Hayne Debate centered around nullification, debate
Tariff of 1832 in response, lowered the tariff of abominations, still not satisfactory
Tariff/Compromise of 1833 attempt to stop SC’s secession, proposed to lower tariff rates further
Prigg v. Pennsylvania determined that the federal fugitive slave law had nullified all personal liberty laws.
Ex Parte Milligan was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional.
Ex Parte Merryman a test of the authority of the President to suspend "the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus", ruled that it lay with the congress, not the president
Election of 1848 Democrats nominated Senator Cass who supported popular sovereignty, Whigs nominated war hero Zachary Taylor who had no position on slavery Free soil nominated Martin Van Buren Taylor won
Election of 1852 Winfield Scott: Whig nominee Franklin Pierce: Democrat nominee, Pledged to enforce all parts of the Compromise of 1850 Democrats won
Election of 1856 Republicans nominated John C. Frémont, called for no expansion of slavery, homesteads, protective tariffs Know Nothings had Millard Freemore Democrats nominate James Buchanan Democrats won
Election of 1860 John C. Breckinridge (supporter of slavery) Stephen A. Douglas (Northern democrats, believed in popular sovereignty) John Bell (constitutional union party: southern whigs and border state) Lincoln (Republicans) not on ballots of some Southern states
Election of 1864 Republican candidate was Lincoln Radical Republicans nominated John C. Frémont Democrats chose George McClellan Lincoln won
Missouri Compromise by Henry Clay Maine entered as free state, Missouri was slave state Slavery above 36-30 prohibited.
Compromise of 1850 President Taylor supported California and New Mexico’’s admittance as fre states. Southerners didn’t like this so Clay proposed California entered as a free state New Mexico and Utah decide by popular sovereignty Slave trade banned in DC
Crittenden Compromise Not passed Returned Missouri Compromise line of 36-30 Allowed all further additions to the Union to follow the Compromise. Forbade federal interference with internal slave trade. Provided compensation to slaveholders for not recovering escaped slaves
The Northwest Ordinance Slavery was prohibited in Northwest territory
First Fugitive Slave Act Provided Southerners with legal weapons to capture runaway slaves Not really enforced at all
Wilmot Proviso Proposed that none of new land acquired in Mexican-American War can allow slavery Passed in House of Representatives but not Senate Northerners supporting this formed Free Soil party
Kansas-Nebraska Act Against Missouri Compromise Wanted to build a railroad through central US, needed Southern approval Proposed Nebraska territory be divided into Kansas (assumed to be slave) and Nebraska (assumed to be free) Popular sovereignty.
Morrill Tariff Act Rates raised to an average of 40% before the end of the war.
Homestead Act Granted 160 acres of public land to settlers after 5 years of residence on the land
Legal Tender Act Authorized $150 million in paper money – greenbacks
Pacific Railroad Act Provided for development of a transcontinental railroad
Morrill Land Grant Act Made higher education available to common people by giving proceeds from sale of public lands to states (spurred growth of large state universities)
Militia Act Enrolled blacks in any military or naval service needed
National Banking Act Required banks to invest a third of their capital in federal bonds Also a 10% tax on bank notes Provided for chartering of federal banks Uniform national currency.
Bull Run First major battle Union troops shocked by the Confederate victory Union people thought it would be fun (went to watch) Significance: Lincoln realizes the war will be long; he needs an overall strategy
Antietam Single bloodiest day of US (over 23,000 dead) up to that point Lee’s failure to carry the war to the North caused Great Britain and France to postpone helping the Confederate government Led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
The Battle of Gettysburg Sparked bc Confederacy heard there was a warehouse with materials that they needed Significance: major turning point, ended Lee’s invasion of the North
Vicksburg Ulysses Grant takes the city of Vicksburg, Tennessee Significance: Gives the Union control of the Mississippi River and effectively splits the Confederacy in two
Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman burned Atlanta, left a path of destruction on his way to Savannah Total war Result: Boost to Northern morale, blow to Southern morale, re-election of Lincoln, Southern resentment Proposed that freemen each be given “40 acres and a mule”
Compact Theory states over federal gov't, federal gov't is a creation of the states, supported by South in the antebellum period
Contract Theory federal gov't over state gov't
Joel H. Silbey Maintains that it was not political views but ethnocultural views that shaped the civil war
Michael F. Holt Slavery is the issue that lead to the Civil War
Eugene Genovese The southern elite wanted to prevent the expansion west because of the possibility of the spread of jacksonian democracy permeating to the southern common man. Instead the elites wanted to spread west to establish a culture.
Douglas Dowd The ruling business man (planter slaveholder class) uses an ideological apparatus to create a cultural hegemony that leads to the acceptance of a capitalist existence by the mass of the population.
Eric Foner Republican party brought together the North and West, setting them against the South causing the South to want to secede
Early Historian The conflict was inevitable Differing forms of economic production separated north and south different and sectionalized political parties SLAVES
Traditional Revisionist Irrepressible conflict radicals on both sides of the equation Bumbling generation, not able to make compromises Radicals led to abolition and secessionists, pushing population away from moderate stances
Post-Revisionist Irreconcilable differences Two incompatible civilizations; life in North and South could never be symbiotic Dual-civilization thesis the cultures of the two sides could not integrate
Gradual Abolitionists Colonization: compensate slave owners, ship them back to Africa
Immediate Non-Violent Abolitionists Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison
Immediate Violent Abolitionists John Brown
Anti-slavery northerners wanted to contain the spread of slavery were worried that expanding slavery would limit the opportunities for capitalism to expand however, also did not want slavery to be abolished completely; slaves could take their jobs
Created by: britt.b.m.c