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Stack #180369

chapter 2 lesson 3 civilization of Mesopotamia

what happened as the city-states all over the Mesopotamia kept growing in area and populatiion? Conflict among the city-states increased.
What did city-states compete with one another to control? land and water sources
conquer to take over - specifically to take over the land of other
why were some people fighting wars in Mesopotamia? to conquer the land of others
why were most wars among early argricultural socities(such as Mesopotamia) fought? to protect farmland and water rights
describe the ladn between the tigirs and euphrates rivers flat
how did city-states mark their boundaries and why they would put up pillars because no natural boundaries - such as mountains - separated the city-states so they had to mark their borders
what happened when one city-state removed/destroyed another's pillars? violated both the decree orders of the gods adn the word given by man to man - and often led to war
what did the need for weapons result in? technology
what is a war chariot and who created them? a light, 2 wheeled cart pulled by horsesmade by craftworkers
what did the new technolgies - such as the war chariot - result in and why? more deaths in battlefrom a fast moving chariot a soldire could speedy by adn throw spears or shoot arrows at an enemy who was on foot.
what was the major cause war among the mesopotamia people to protect farmland and water rights
who is the first know conqueror in mesopotamia a warrior named Sargon - parents were nomads from northern mesopotomia
What did Sargon do as a young man? he served as an offical in teh Suemriann city-state of Kish
how did Sargon rise in power? He killed the king of Kish and took control of the city-state. He then gathered an army and march trhough Mesopotamia establishing an empire.
what is an empire? a conquered land of many peoples and places goverend by one ruler
Who was mesopotamia's first emperor? Sargon
what is an emporer? a ruler of an empire.
what did sargon build in the middle of his empire? a capital city called Akkad
what did Sargon's empire became know as? Akkadian and the people Akkadians.
were the akkadians Sumerians ilke Sargon? No but they adopted teh Sumerian culture
why did Sargon order every bounary pillar and city wall to be torn down? as a sign of his conquest.
how long did sargon rule? 55 years.
how sargon maintain his rule? by force and organization
how was Sargon's army different than armies before his? His were a standing army in which the soldiers were paid and served for long periods - before Sargon soldiers would only serve during war time.
who did Sargon appoint as governors and why? he appointed loyal nobles as governors to control the conquered cities.
what sargon an effective ruler? yes and his empire was well organized.
how far did the akkadian empire stretch by 2300 b.c. from what is now Iran westward to teh mediterranean sea.
when the empire finally weakened, the city statees found themselves between what two centers of power? assyria and babylonia
who is hammurabi? king of the city state of babylon
when was hammurabi king of bablyon from 1790 through 1750 b.c.
what areas did hammurabi conquer during his kingdom? he conquered and reunited most of mesopotamia adn the upper valley of hte tigris and euphrates rivers.
in conquering so much land - what did hammurbi accomplish? he creaeted a large empire.
what was Hammurabi's empire known as? the Babylonian empire.
was Hammurabi just a military leader?If not, what did he do? No - like Sargon he was much more - he improved each city state by (1) promoting trade (2) building projects (3) keeping up dikes adn canals.
What happened to Babylon under Hammurabi? it thrived as a center for trade.
what was Hammurabi's most important achievements? his reorgnization of mesopotamia's system of taxation?
What is taxation? under a system of taxation, people are required to pay taxes (money) to support hte government.
why did Hammurabi make changes to the tax system? to make sure everyone paid his fair share.
how did Hammurabi collect the taxes and what did he do with the money? he sent tax colletors travelling throughout the region to collect the tax money. The money was spent for Hammurabi's improvements.
what is Hammurabi probably most remember for? for changing the laws of his land.
What did Hammarubi do to the laws of his land? Each city state had its own set of laws. Hammarubi collected all of hte laws, sorted through them and came up with one complete listing of the laws.
what are the laws Hammarubi came up with called? teh Code of Hammurabi.
What is the Code of Hammurabi? a complete listing of all of the laws of each city state in the Babylonian empire - put together by Hammurabi.
How many laws did the Code of Hammurabi have? 282
Did the laws only cover certain topics? No - they covered almost every part of daily life. Marriage, divorce, adoption, slaves, murder, stealing, military service, land, business, lonas, prices adn wages.
The old laws before the Code of Hammurabi were complicated and unfair - how did Hammurabi fix this? The Code of Hammurabi explaiend the laws in clear staements and set standard punishments.
Some of the laws in the Code of Hammurabie followed the idea of "an eye for an eye" - what does that mean? that whoever caused an injury should be punished with that same injury. so if someone borke another's arm in a fight, he would be punished by having his arm broken.
who ruled around 1600 bchow long did they rule the kassites400 years
who gained control next Assyrian Empire
who conquered the Assytian Empire the Medes
why did the Assyrians seed more land to build trade
Created by: gymg8tor