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Pathology 1 Block 1

Pathology NWHSU

What cells are normally replaced at different intervals? (Enterocytes, gastric and squamous epithelium) Labile Cells
What cells do not normally regenerate but may in certain situations? (liver cells after hepatitis or partial liver donation) Stable Cells
What cells do not regenerate during a lifetime? (Caridac cells) Permanent Cells
Irreversible cell damage leads to _____________ or ____________. Necrosis or Apoptosis
What is programmed cell death that leads to DNA fragmentation? Apoptosis
What is a polymorphonuclear luekocyte? Neutrophil
Name a pro-apoptotic protein. Bax
Name an anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2
What leaks out of the cell before apoptosis? Mitochondrial proteins
Decrease in O2 supply, toxins, and radiation all cause mitochondrial damage which leads to a decrease of_____ generation and increase production of ____ which eventually leads to multiple cellular abnormalities and eventually cell necrosis. Decrease in ATP, increase in ROS (Decrease in energy, increase in Reactive Oxygen Species)
What two cellular reactions can happen from a reversible cell injury? Hydropic Swelling Fatty Metamorphisis
Atrophy, Involution, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and lipfuscin pigment are all caused by ____________________ and are ___________ (irreversible or reversible). Persistent stress All reversible
Lipofuscin Pigment is commonly seen in the __________ tissue. Also common in the ____ and the _______. It is ___________ in color under the microscope and shows up dark on HE staining. It is causes by ______________. heart/cardiac tissue also common in the liver and brain Yellow-Brown and granular Repeated stress
Necrosis dealing with ischemia or infarcation. Most common type of necrosis. Coagulative Necrosis
Necrosis dealing with excess liquid build up most commonly in the brain. Liquefactive Necrosis
Necrosis dealing with lipase on adipocytes breaking down the triglyceride in the fat cell leaking into the surrounding fat. Fat necrosis
Cheesy/curdlike foul smelling necrosis with gramulomas. Caseous necrosis
Necrosis in small arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Typically they lose elasticity. Fibrinoid necrosis
Common in wrists, ankles, and femurs. Ischemia leading to hypoxia leading to ___________ necrosis. A sign of this necrosis is absence of ___________ in bone. Avascular (Aseptic/osteonecrosis) necrosis osteocytes
Decrease in cell size. Atrophy
Decrease in cell number. Involution
Increase in cell size Hypertrophy
Increase in cell number Hyperplasia
Change of one normal cell to another normal cell. Metaplasia
Microscopic cell abnormality indicating premalignant change Dysplasia
Poorly differentiated tissue can be __________. Cancer
__________ _____ _______ epithelium to squamous eptithelium. (1 type of metaplasia) Bronchial ciliated columnar epithelium
_________ __________ epithelium to squamous epithelium. (1 type of metaplasia) Transitional Bladder epithelium
_________ __________ epithelium to columnar epithelium. (1 type of metaplasia) Esophageal squamous epithelium
______ _________ to bone. (1 type of metaplasia) fibrous tissue to bone
____________ may occur in uterine cervical squamous epithelium, columnar epithelium in adenomatous colon polyps, and squamous epithelium in the bronchial tree. Dysplasia
Lipofuscin is a pigment composed of degraded lipid and protein from broken down __________ ________. Cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum
A coagulative necrosis (occuring in gummas, tertiary syphilis, and respiratory tracts). Common to have granulomas. What type of necrosis is this. Gummatous necrosis
Ischemia leading to necrosis is ________. Also known as a coagulative necrosis involving multiple tissue layers. Gangrene
Decreased blood supply to a tissue or organ. Ischemia
Tissue necrosis from severe ischemia, the blood supply may be cut off completely. Infarcation
Three nuclear changes occuring in necrosis in order. Pyknosis->Karyorrhexis->Karyolysis
Nuclear change in necrosis that involves shrinkage and pigment change/hyperchromatism Pyknosis
Nuclear change in necrosis that involves fragmentation. Karyorrhexis
nuclear change in necrosis that involves dissolution of the nucleus. The nucleus is no longer visible. Karyolysis
Liquefactive necrosis occurs where there are many cells rich in _________, ________ and neutrophils. _________ contain many digestive enzymes which are released from these cells into the surrounding tissue causing liquefaction of the tissue. Lysosomes, macrophages, and neutrophils Lysosomes
_________ necrosis occurs in granulomas. Caseous necrosis
Center of granuloma is _______ tissue. Necrotic/caseous tissue
Bordering the center of the granuloma is ___________. Macrophages
The bigger cells inside of the macrophages in a granuloma are _________ _______ cells. Langhans giant cells
_________ surround the macrophages in a granuloma. Lymphocytes
The outtermost border of a granuloma is _____________ Fibroblasts
Important cause of caseous necrosis in a granuloma in the lung. Tuberculosis
___________ are derived from circulating blood monocytes which are produced in the bone marrow. Macrophages
Macrophages in a granuloma with an increased amount of cytoplasm are ___________ cells. Epithelioid cells
Cell resulting from fusion of machrophages found in a granuloma. Langhans giant cells
With ________ necrosis arteries can stay constricted and cause malignent hyertension. BP can be as high as 220/140 causing the patient to take medication. Fibrinoid necrosis
Cell injury starts with damage to the __________ membrane with a loss of selective permiability.. Cell membrane
Second in cell injury is damage to the _________ membrane with loss of aerobic respiration and ATP generation. Mitochondrial membrane
Third in cell injury is a Ca++ influx causing damage to the _________ membrane with leakage of ________ _______ into the cytosol. lysosomal membrane with digestive enzyme leakage
Three molecules injure lipid bilayer membranes by peroxidation. These toxic oxygen species are __________ _______ _____ ______, ________ __________, and ______ _________ Super oxide anion radical (SAR, O2), Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), Hydroxyl radical (OH')
What scavenge free radicals or toxic oxygen species? Antioxidants
Two systems our body has that work as natural antioxidants. Glutathione and catalase
The fourth and final event of lethal cell injury is massive entry of ______ into the __________. The ________ activates multiple types of digestive enzymes in the cell that destroy all the critical parts of the cell resulting in death. Calcium into the cytosol. calcium
A process by which phaocytic cells internalize and digest particulate material. (like bacteria) Phagocytosis
What 3 cells are capable of phagocytosis? Macrophages (Most common) Neutrophils Eosinophils
The cell membrane of the phagocyte wraps around the bacterium forming a ___________. Lysosomes within the cytoplasm of the pahgocyte fuse with the phagosome forming a __________. Digestive enzymes from the lysosome help digest and kill the bacterium. Phagosome Phagolysosome
____________ is often a physiologic process where cells that are normally short-lived die and are replaced by new young cells. Apoptosis
Calcification that occurs in a previously abnormal tissue. (ex granuloma, atherosclerotic plaque) Dystrophic calicification
Calcification that occurs because of increased calcium concentration in the extracellular fluid. (hyperparathyroidism with excess parathyroid thyroid hormone production) Metastatic calcification
Inflammation that develops in house and may persist or may heal on its own. Acute inflamtion
Inflammation that follow acute inflammation or may be the initial inflammatory response. Chronic inflamtion
A specific type of chronic inflammation. Granulomatous Inflamtion
Rubor or erythema is ______ Redness
Calor is _______ heat
Tumor is _________ swelling
Dolor is _______ pain
Functio laesa is ________ __ ________ loss of function
Fluid accumulation in tissue outside the vascular system (Between ECF and ICF) Edema
Fluid accumulation in a confined anatomic space (Joint, pleural or peritoneal cavity) Effusion
Fluid with a low protein content, sp. gr. <1.015 Transudate
Fluid with a high protein content, sp. gr. >1.015 Exudate
2 skin infections caused by staphylococcus aureus. Impetigo Folliculitis
2 skin infections caused by Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus. Erysipelas Cellulitis of the arm
3 types of blood vessels comprise the microvasculature. What are they? Arterioles Capillaries Post capillary venules
1st line of defense in the first 24 hours is _________. Neutrophils/PMN's (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
1st line of defense 24-48 hours what two cells arrive. They are followed by _________ and _______ cells. Monocytes and macrophages Followed by platelets and mast cells
Communication within the cell Intracrine
Communication between two adjacent cells gap junctions
communication between two attached celsl juxtacrine
communication the cell talks to itself autocrine
communication between nearby cells paracrine
communication between distant cells endocrine
communication at nerve synapses neural
communication between distant cells neuroendocrine
Five stages of cellular migration into an inflamed tissue 1 margination 2 rolling along endothelium 3 activation of inflamatory cell 4 adhesion of the inflammatory cell to the endothelial cell 5 transmigration(emigration) inflamatory cell out of the postcapillary venule into the inflamed tissue
During cell rolling _______ interact with _________ and the cell surface to become activated. Protein interact with neutrophils
Cell derived mediators can be derived from the cell membrane of many types. A common vasoactive mediator of inflammation is __________ acid. Arachidonic acid
Specific cells involved in inflammation produce specific proinflammatory mediators in addition to arachidonic acid. What are four of these. Platelets, mast cells, endothelial cells, monocytemacrophage cells
Arachidonic acid is a ___ carbon fatty acid that is joined to carbon 2 of phospholipids in the cell membrane of all cells. It is split off of the plasma membrane by an enzyme called ____________ ___. 20 carbon fatty acid Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)
After arachidonic acid is acted on by other enzymes it forms various ____________ such as thromboxanes, prostaglandins, and luekotrines. Eicosanoids
Cyclooxygenase causes formation of a ring at the middle of the 20C AA chain forming prostaglandins and thromboxanes now termed as __________. Prostanoids
__________ adds an oxygen molecule to AA forming leukotrines and lipoxins. Lipoxygenase
4 classes of eicosanoids are ? Prostaglandins (PGA-PGI), Thromboxanes (TX), Leukotrienes (LT), Lipoxins(LX)
Created by: T1NWHSU