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JAH--Reconstruction

JAHKMLHS C12 The Reconstruction Era

TermDefinition
Freedmen's Bureau This organizations was set up on March 3, 1865 in order to train the unskilled and illiterate freed Blacks.
10% Plan According to this plan for reconstruction, a state which had seceded could set up a new government if and when a relatively small number of its voters took a loyalty oath to the Union and also acknowledged the emancipation of the slaves.
Thaddeus Stevens This Representative from Pennsylvania was a leader of the Radical Republicans who desired to keep the Southern states from the Union as long as possible and to bring about drastic social and economic change in the South.
Wade-Davis Bill This reconstruction plan by Radical Republicans required 50% of the states’ voters to take oaths of allegiance and guarantees of African American equality.
state-suicide theory This concept proposed by Radical Republicans held that the Confederacy had forfeited all their rights by seceding from the Union and they should be readmitted only as "conquered provinces” subject to the conditions and wishes of Congress.
John Wilkes Booth This man was the “ring-leader” of a group that eventually determined to kill Abraham Lincoln, William Seward, and Andrew Johnson.
Tenure of Office Act In 1867, Congress passed this law, which stated that the president needed Senate approval to remove certain officials from office.
Andrew Johnson This man, the only Confederate Congressman not to leave Congress when the rest of the South seceded, became Vice-President in 1865.
April 14, 1865 On this date the face of reconstruction probably changed with the shooting of the President who wanted “malice toward none” as the nation was on the verge of being reunited.
Freedmen's Bureau This group taught about 200,000 Blacks how to read, since many former slaves wanted to narrow the literary gap between themselves and Whites and also read the word of God.
Fourteenth Amendment This addition to the Constitution defined citizenship to include African-Americans and guaranteed that no citizen could be deprived of his rights without due process.
Charles Sumner This man was the leader of the Radical Republicans in the Senate. He also introduced the bill that created the Freedmen’s Bureau. During Reconstruction, he introduced the bill that eventually became (after his death) the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
pocket veto The Constitution grants the President 10 days to review a measure passed by the Congress. If Congress adjourns during the 10-day period, the President can stop the bill from becoming law by using this descriptive action.
impeachment This Constitutional tool was used in an attempt to remove Andrew Johnson from office for violation of Federal law.
Black Codes In order to control the freed African Americans, many Southern states passed these laws that tried to limit the rights of African Americans and keep them as landless workers.
Civil Rights Act of 1875 This law provided for equality for African-Americans in public places
Radical Republicans This political group wanted to keep the South out of the Union as long as possible and totally change its economy.
Reconstruction Acts These were a series of three measures passed in 1867 and 1868 in which represented Congress’ plan for reconstruction.
Fifteenth Amendment This addition to the Constitution, passed by Congress in 1869, gave Blacks their right to vote.
Ku Klux Klan This organization, formed in Tennessee, was the best known of the groups of white southerners organized to terrorize African Americans and others.
scalawag This derogatory term (originally describing worthless livestock) was applied to native white Southerners who supported the federal reconstruction plan and cooperated with the blacks in order to achieve their ends.
sharecropping In this system large landowners provided families with a place to live, seeds, and tools in return for a portion of the harvest.
Hiram Revels This man, elected to the U.S. Senate by the Mississippi state senate to fill the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis, became the first African American in Congress.
grandfather clause This term applies to sections of Black Codes which attempted to allow poor whites to vote while eliminating blacks. These were finally struck down by the Supreme Court in 1915 as a violation of the 15th Amendment.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 This law was designed to protect the rights of all Americans, to give African-Americans the same rights as citizens citizenship, and to outlaw black codes.
tenant farming Agricultural system in which landowners rent their land to farmers and receive either cash or a share of the product in return. Landowners may also contribute operating capital and management.
carpetbagger This name was derisively applied to Northerners, including former abolitionists who risked their lives to help freedmen in the South, by white southern Democrats.
Blanche Bruce This former slave, who became a successful plantation owner, was the second African American to serve in the United States Senate and the first to be elected to a full term
Enforcement Acts This series of three laws set heavy penalties for anyone attempting to prevent a qualified citizen from voting. They also banned the use of disguises to deprive any person of rights.
redeemers This name referred to a loose political coalition of Democrats, Union Whigs, Confederate army veterans, and individuals who wanted to reclaim the South from northern domination.
Credit Mobilier This was a “dummy” railroad construction company begun by Union Pacific Railroad executives. The company bribed even Schuyler Colfax, Grant’s vice president.
Rutherford B. Hayes This man became President as the result of a so-called “back-room bargain” and earned the nickname “His Fraudulency.” He proved to be scrupulously honest in office.
Jay Gould This man, together with Jim Fisk, bribed Grant’s brother-in-law as he attempted to corner the gold market. His attempt led to the panic of September 24, 1869, “Black Friday.”
share-tenancy In this system the farmworker chose what crop he would plant and bought his own supplies. The farmer gave a portion of his crop to the landowner.
Compromise of 1877 This informal agreement was the result of a series of meetings between prominent northern and southern politicians and businessmen which supposedly ensured the election of Hayes.
Created by: jim.haferman