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HillHistory1301Final

TermDefinition
Andrew Jackson Major general in the Tennessee Militia, defeated the Creek Indians, invaded the panhandle of Spanish Florida and won the Battle of New Orleans. Vetoed bills American System bills. Started the trail of tears
Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would thenceforth be closed to colonization but that the United States would honor existing colonies of European nations
Lowell System The first to bring all the processes of spinning and weaving cloth together under one roof and have every aspect of the production mechanized. Designed to be model factory communities that provided women with meals, boarding, moral discipline, education
Erie Canal Most important and profitable of the barge canals in the 1820s and 1830s; Stretched from Buffalo to Albany, New York, connecting the Great Lakes to the East Coast and making New York City the nation's largest port
Missouri Compromise Proposed by KY Senator Henry Clay to resolve the Slave/free imbalance that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state. Maine's admission as a free state offset missouri, Slavery prohibited in remaining territory north of MO southern border
Panic of 1819 Financial Collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation
American System/Market Revolution Internal improvements and protective tarriffs promoted by Henry Clay in his 1824 presidential campaign; formed the core of whig ideology in 1830-1840
Spoils System Filling of federal government jobs with persons loyal to the party of the president. Originated in Andrew Jackson's first term, replaced in the Progressive era by civil service
Trail of Tears Cherokee term for their forced march, 1838-1839, from the southern Appalachians to Indian lands (later Oklahoma)
Cult of Domesticity Belief that women should stay at home to manage the household, educate their children with strong moral values, and please their husbands
Minstrelsy Form of entertainment popular from 1830s-1870s featuring white performers in blackface playing banjos and fiddles, dancing and telling lowbrow jokes. Reinforced racial stereotypes
Nativism Anti-immigrant and anti-catholic feeling in the 1830s through the 1850s. Became the Know-nothing party.
Know-Nothing Party Nativist, anti-catholic third party organized in 1854 in reaction to large-scale German and Irish immigration. Party's only presidential candidate was millard fillmore in 1856
Transcendentalism Philosophy of a small group of mid nineteenth century New England writers and thinkers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. Stressed "Plain Living and High thinking"
Second Great Awakening Religious revival movement of the early decades of the 19th century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion, began the predominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches
Utopian Societies Flourished during the Jacksonian era and were attempts to create the ideal community. Social experiments conducted in relative isolation with little impact on the outside world. Most ended quickly
Dorthea Dix Important figure in increasing public awareness of the plight of the mentally ill. After a 2 year investigation she presented her findings and won the support of leading reformers
Sojourner Truth Born into slavery but freed by New York state in 1827, spent 1840s and 1850s travelling across the country and speaking to audiences about her experiences as a slave and asking them to support abolition and women's rights
Joseph Smith Claimed an angel showed him the book of mormon, founded the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He and his followes settled in Commerce, Illinois. Killed by an anti-mormon mob
Manifest Destiny Imperialist phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas, used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and Far West
James Knox Polk, "Young Hickory" President whose chief concern was the expansion of the united states. Resolved the dispute with Britain over the Oregon Country border. Declared war on Mexico. Signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave up Texas, New Mexico and California
Abolition Anti-slavery movement shifted from the gradual end of slavery to immediate ending of slavery
Yeomen Farmers Small landowners making up the majority of white families in the South who farmed their own land and usually did not own slaves
Underground Railroad Operating decades before the civil war, clandestine system of routes and safehouses through which slaves were lead to freedom in the north
Nat Turner Leader of the only slave revolt to get past planning stages. Began in 1831 with slaves killing the members of his master's household. Then attacked other neighboring farmhouses and recruited more slaves until the militia crushed the revolt
Compromise of 1850 Mediated by senator Henry clay that headed off southern secession over California Statehood. Included stronger fugitive slave law and delayed determination of the slave status of Utah and New Mexico territories
Popular sovereignty Allowed settlers in a disputed territory to decide the slavery issue for themselves
Free-Soil party Formed in 1848 to oppose slavery in the territory acquired in the Mexican war; nominated Martin van Buren for president in 1848, but by 1854 most of the party's members had joined the republican party
Kansas-Nebraska Act Allowed settlers in newly organized territories north of the Missouri border to decide slavery for themselves. Fury over the nullification of the missouri compormise of 1820 lead to violence in Kansas and the formation of the republican party
Dred Scott Decision Ruling that slaves could not sue for freedom and that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories, on the grounds that such a prohibition would violate the 5th amendment rights of slaveholders
John Brown Willing to use violence to further his anti-slavery beliefs. Killed several in KS leading to guerrilla war. Attempted to raid a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859, but was captured and executed
Secession Southern states began dissolving their ties with the United States because they believed that newly elected president Lincoln and the republican party were a threat to slavery
Battles of Bull Run First engagement was in july 1861, surprising union troops who quickly retreated. Second in august 1862, confederates captured the federal supply depot and forced union troops back to washington
Emancipation Proclamation Issued by Lincoln in 1862, freeing the slaves of the Confederate states as of January 1 1863
Anaconda Strategy Union army would crush the confederacy through exerting pressure on Richmond, blockading Confederate ports, and dividing the south by invading its major waterways
William T. Sherman's March Through Georgia Effort to demoralize the civilian population of Georgia and destroy the resources they need to fight. Seized livestock that the confederate army might have used as well as wrecked railroads and mills and burned plantations
Created by: Curtlyn