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Explain about Humanism The most pervasive cultural trait of the Renaissance. It began in 14th cent, Italy and spread to other parts of Christendom by end of 5th century.
What does the term "humanism" mean? "New Learning", a relatively late one, coined by F.J. Niethammer in 1808 but it is derived from much earlier Renaissance word, the Latin "humanista", referring in 1808 of the "studia humanitatis", the humanities
Humanism was rooted in the belief of which certain body of learning? The literature of ancient Rome (and to a lesser extent ancient Greece), could cause a renewal or rebirth (renaissance) of culture and society. These humanistic studies included grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history
What did they generally reject? The highly theoretical, metaphysical and scientific emphasis of medieval scholasticism which dominated education and universities.
What did they focus on? The humanists not only focused on the pagan classics but also on Christian antiquity, the Church Fathers & the Bible. While most of the texts a humanist read were old ones, they read differently. There were also new discoveries in some classical texts.
What were the humanists? Primarily educators, whether in the strict sense as schoolmasters and teachers (e.g. Vittornio da Feltre (1378-1446) for the Gonzaga Lords of Mantua) or as writiers, secretaries and counselors
Many authors have tried to tie humanism to what? Particular philosophical or political movements, or to particular worldviews.
Who is the great historian Jakob Burckhardt (1818-1897)? Taught at Basel in Switzerland, and his highly influential book, "Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" (1860) who saw Renaissance humanism "the discovery of man and his world" of the development of the individual, of secularity and paganism
Who is the great historian Paul Oskar Kristeller? Points out, the incredible variety of humanists make it impossible to give any other unity to the movement than that of a literary and rhetorical one.
Continue Paul Oskar Kristeller? It was a cultural edcational program that had its origins in the medieval Italian "dictatores" who taught and practiced art of Latin letter on writing
Explain about the major Italian humanists Profoundly religious though they approached God differently from medieval predecessors, focusing on the more active and charitable aspects over the contemplative and otherworldly
What was the Cardinal Cismeros? The great church in Spain, reformer created in the University of Alcala, in 1508 as a humanist center and financed the creation and publication in 1514-1517 of the scholar Complutensian Polyglot Bible in the original languages.
When did the Renaissance humanism come in Northern Europe? Later and had a even stronger Christian coloration. The figures of Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) the most influential humanist of his day and his friend Thomas More
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