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MIP 300 Unit 4

QuestionAnswer
vertical gene transfer from parent to offspring
horizontal gene transfer one organism to the next in the same generation
3 types of horizontal gene transfer transformation, transduction, conjugation
recombination genes from a donor cell passed to a recipient cell and the DNA is combined into the recipient's DNA
DNA fragments in transformation usually come from dying cells
fates of exogenous DNA in transformation experiments integrates, replicates on its own (plasmids), no integration and degrades
biotechnology in transformation insulin production if insert insulin gene
generalized transduction (3) can be lytic or lysogenic; any gene can be transferred;cellular DNA packaged instead of phage DNA
specialized transduction (3) temperate phage only; only genes near integration site; occurs from improper excision
all ____ are present in specialized transduction, despite ___ ____ genes; improper excision
replicons plasmids that carry origins of replication; independently replicate and are stably inherited (USE CELL MACHINERY TO REPLICATE- DNA pol, RNA pol, ribosomes)
episomes may exist as plasmids or integrate into host DNA
conjugative plasmids carry genes for conjugation (pili & sex pili production)
RTF genes (plasmid) resistance transfer factor, pilus synthesis, origin of transfer, origin of replication
col plasmids contain genes to produce bacteriocins (collagenase)
virulence plasmids contain genes to make bacteria more virulent or pathogenic (toxins, evading immune system, invading host tissues)
metabolic plasmids carry genes to metabolize new substances
2 types of conjugation plasmid transfer; chromosome transfer
F+ contain fertility plasmid
F- does not contain fertility plasmid
4 steps of plasmid transfer sex pilus, enzyme cleaves 1 strand of plasmid, 1 strand transferred, complementary strands synthesized in both cells
Hfr conjugation high frequency recombinant; arise when F plasmid integrates
transfer of whole genome through sex pili by ___ ____ _____, by ___ ____ rolling circle replication; brownian motion
interrupted mating can map genes relative to F- factor integration site by interrupting mating at intervals over time
+ sense RNA 5’-3’
- sense RNA 3’-5’
+ sense DNA 3’-5’
-sense DNA 5’-3’
shapes of viruses (3) helical (protomers), icosahedral, complex
where do RNA viruses replicate? cytoplasm
where do DNA viruses replicate? nucleus
how do you cultivate viruses? must be grown in eukaryotic cells
cytopathic effect damage or death to cells which can be visualized & indicate viral infection
quantification of viruses (4) electron microscope, plaque assays, hemagglutinin assays (clumping of RBCs), immunohistochemistry
immunohistochemistry (a way to quantify viruses); antibodies specific for virus labeled w/ fluorescent dye
potential problem with ELISA some people don’t produce antibodies until 6 months old
what enzyme used to get into cells? neuraminidase
what enzyme used to get out of cells? hemagglutinin
which hepatitis viruses have a vaccine? A and B
which hepatitis viruses are acute? A and E
which hepatitis viruses are chronic? B and C
hepatitis B can lead to liver cancer
why is hard to treat the common cold? different types of viruses and mutate every year
Kuru human prion found in island people- ingestion of contaminated tissue (can be inherited)
Scrapie sheep prion disease
Mad Cow disease fed rendered down sheep material= gave ride to Mad Cow
classic Creutzfield-Jakob spontaneous mutation or inherited
variant Creutzfield-Jakob from eating contaminated material
chronic wasting disease elk and mule deer colorado (doesn't transfer to humans yet)
disease vs infection cannot be cleared vs can be cleared
infection can be cleared
most common STD chlamydia
yeast infections are called ___ and often caused by ____ candidiasis, antibiotics
bacterial vaginosis is caused by Gardnerella vaginalis
gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
complications of gonorrhea PID (epididymus in men), blindness in babies
what eyedrops are given to babies at birth and why? erythromycin for gonorrhea
chlamydia mocks what STI? gonorrhea (PID, similar discharge)
which bacterial STI is very delicate? syphilis (treponema pallidum)
syphilis is easily treated with penicillin
HSV 1 mouth
HSV 2 genital
complications of herpes (2) cervical cancer, infection of fetus/newborn
HPV symptoms warts, microscopic epithelial changes, or nothing
treat HPV (vaccine beforehand); can freeze off or remove warts
Molluscum contagiosum pox virus STD; resolves in 6-12 months; bump w/ dimple
if you have HIV you are more likely to get cancer
Imiquimod topical treatment for HPV and Molluscum contagiosum
protozoan STD trichomoniasis
how to treat trichomoniasis? antibiotic
4 requirements of recombinant DNA technology bacteria can be transformed, plasmids, restriction enzymes, DNA ligase
2 restriction enzymes/size Eco RI (sticky), HaeIII (blunt) 4-8 bp
where do restriction enzymes come from? bacteriophage
what dictates which RE you use? the donor DNA
make recombinant DNA molecules (3) isolate gene of interest using RE, digest plasmid w/ same RE, add gene/plasmid/ligase together
how to prepare competent bacteria to pick up recombined plasmid heat/freeze, chemicals or electricity to make membranes leaky
what must you also add to genetic recombination, and why? add an antibiotic resistance gene so only the recombined bacteria grows
put cloned genes into Eukaryotic cells gene gun (difficult)
what is made using recombinant DNA technology? (2) insulin, bovine growth hormone
transgenic crop toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (BT corn) to kill pests
industrial uses of cloning break down cellulose to use biofuel from plant
bioremediation uses of cloning oil spills, break down plastic
___ ___ can always be ligated together, but __ ___ cannot blunt ends of any kind; sticky ends of different RE
what is the PCR dye called? ethidium bromide
examples of bacteria/phage pairs that worsen disease (3) Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae and Clostridium botulinum
Created by: melaniebeale
 

 



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