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Civil Rights

civil people
civil rights peoples' rights
segregation keeping people separated based on your gender, race (color of skin), ethnic background, political belief or religious views
empathize to feel someone's pain because you have experienced it yourself
inhumane treating someone as something that is not human
justice to be treated equally under the law
injustice treating people unequally
Dred Scott vs. Sanford the Supreme Court Case that decided that slaves were property and NOT citizens; they had no rights
13th amendment ended slavery
14th amendment defined a citizen; gave all citizens equal protection under the law
15th amendment gave ALL men the right to vote
Jim Crow laws Southern state and local laws that prevented blacks and whites from mixing socially on any level
DeFacto laws laws of tradition; ways of life
sharecropping landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) terrorist group that used threats to maintain segregation
poll taxes a fee that had to be paid in order for one to vote
literacy test an exam given before voting to test reading and writing skills
grandfather clause "if your grandfather could vote, you could vote"
Plessy vs. Ferguson the Supreme Court Case that decided that "separate but equal" was constitutional
Booker T. Washington wanted blacks to focus on education in order to become equal to the whites; strengthen the race first; created the Tuskegee Institute
W.E.B. DuBois wanted equality now; believed in protests;helped create the NAACP
NAACP group that helped African Americans fight for their rights
Brown vs. Board of Education the Supreme Court Case that decided that "separate but equal" was not legal in public schools
Thurgood Marshall the NAACP lawyer that helped to win the Brown case; later became the first African American justice on the Supreme Court
Earl Warren Supreme Court Chief Justice that helped to earn a unanimous vote in favor of the Browns to desegregate schools
Emmett Till 14 year old boy who was brutally murdered for talking "fresh" to a white girl; his murderers were found not guilty in court
Rosa Parks woman who refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus; was arrested; her arrest sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. civil rights leader who believed in peaceful nonviolence to earn equality
Montgomery Bus Boycott blacks refused to use public transportation, choosing to walk or ride bikes instead; hurt the industry; Supreme Court ruled to desegregate public transportation
Little Rock Nine nine black students who were integrated into Central High School; President Eisenhower had to send troops to enforce the law and get them into school
Ernest Green one of the Little Rock Nine; first to graduate from Central High
Dwight Eisenhower president of the U.S. during the crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas; had to use his federal power to enforce the law so that black students could attend the white school
desegregate/integrate bring people together
unconstitutional breaks the law (The Constitution)
judicial review the power of the Supreme Court to review a law and decide if it is legal under the Constitution
John F. Kennedy President during the 1960s who created a bill to end segregation in America; he was assassinated before the bill could be passed
Lyndon B. Johnson President after JFK that signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law; he also signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law
non-violence/peaceful protest the philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.; involved protesting segregation laws without violence (ex. sit-ins, marches, freedom rides, bus boycotts, etc.)
sit-ins a method of nonviolent protest where students would sit at segregated lunch counters and ask to be served
Freedom Rides a method of nonviolent protests on interstate transportation
March on Birmingham led by Martin Luther King, Jr.; a march through the streets of Birmingham to end segregation; it included a Children's March; marchers were met by brutal police force
Letter from Birmingham Jail the letter that Dr. King wrote when he was jailed in Birmingham that spoke of the great injustice in America, as well as hope and the need to continue fighting for freedom
Black Power a name coined by Stokely Carmichael; it reinforced the idea that blacks should fight back and should defend themselves against white segregationists
Malcolm X civil rights leader who thought that blacks should stay separate from whites, as a separate power; believed in self-defense from white counterparts
Black Panther Party militant group that believed in self-defense and black power to help earn freedom
March on Washington the march led on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial by Dr. King; was meant to put pressure on Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act; Dr. King gave his "I have a dream..." speech here
Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended all Jim Crow laws in the U.S.; ended segregation
Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed literacy tests and poll taxes
24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes
Created by: Mrs.Rizzo