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Vocab Quiz

1754-1800

TermDefinition
French-Indian War nine year war between the British and the French in North America; it resulted in the expulsion of French from North America mainland and helped spark the Seven Years War in Europe
William Pitt - Prime Minister -Increased military commitment to North America - France's military commitment to war in Europe -admired by the commoners “Organizer of Victory.” He wisely decided a series of soft petal attacks on the French West Indies
Treaty of Paris (1763) peace treaty signed by Britain and US that ended Revolutionary War; British recognized American independence and cede from their territory east of Mississippi and US promise to restore loyalist land and pay back British debtors
British in Debt a. French-Indian War debts 2x National Debt b. Increased Taxes on colonist (didnt like it)
Royal Proclamation of 1763 a. King George III b. Reserved lands west of Appalachian Mountains c. Limited role of Roman Catholics
Pontiac Rebellion Bloody campaign waged by Ottawa chief Pontiac to drive British out of Ohio Country. It was brutally crushed by British troops, who resorted to distribute blankets infected with smallpox as a means to put sown the rebellion
Sugar Act (1764) a. Meant to deter molasses smugglers (French Caribbean) b. Lower tariffs BUT more strictly enforced c. Accused: Tried in Admiralty Courts (No Jury) d. Violating rights of Englishmen
Currency Act (1764) a. Post War Economic Depression b. Forbade colonies from issuing paper colony c. End of "Salutary Neglect" d. Colonial Protest = Uncoordinated, ineffective
Stamp Act (1764) -raise revenue-Not a protective tariff-Tax on all legal documents-Affected goods manufactured within colonies-The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Provided-more representative in parliament-Parliament:virtual representation
Declaratory Act (1766) a. Repealed the Stamp Act b. Asserted Rights of Parliament to tax the colonies
Sons of Liberty a. patriotic group that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements b. Verbal and violent protests (governor's mansion attacks) c. Attacks on customs house and custom agents
Samuel Adams a. Master protagonist and engineer of rebellion b. Lived and breathed politics c. Wanted to organize Committees of Correspondence d. Circulatory Letter - call for unified protest
John Adams described basic principles of Model Treaty (1) No political connections (2) No military connections (3) Only commercial connections; defends troops of Boston Massacre in court and gets aquitted
Townshend Act (1767) Tax on glass, white led, paper, paint, and tea; the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors who had previously been directed by colonial assemblies; sparked another round of protests
Massachusetts Circulatory Letter Unify Colonies Author Samuel Adams - unified protest - Organized protest, boycott of British goods (2 years) - British merchants called repeal - Colonial Woman - essential to protest (American made goods)-Parliament removed the duties (but not tax on tea)
Boston Massacre clash between unruly protestors & locally stationed British redcoats who fired on the jeering crowd killing or wounding eleven citizens; towns people began taunting & throwing snowballs at redcoats & one man acting out of fear open fire and killed a man
Committees of Correspondence local committees establish across Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition on British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets - encouraged citizens to take interest in conflict
East India Tea Company -bankruptcy-London gov. lose in tax revenue-Monopoly to sell tea to the company-Included collection of duties on tea sales-Cheaper Tea - but meant paying NEW tax=protest-Boston Tea Party - Dec. 16, 1773 - "Mohawk" Indians dumped tea into the Boston harbor
Boston Tea Party Rowdy protests against the British East Indian Company's newly acquired monopoly on the tea trade-Colonist disguised as Indians dumped tea into Boston harbor prompting British Parliament-Tea became a sign of unity between rich and poor people
Coercive Acts -Intolerable Acts-Encroachment ton self-gov & personal liberty-Closed Boston Harbor (until tea was paid for)-Blockade Trade (exception: food & firewood)-Tightened control over Mass. Legislature & courts-New Quartering Act = Soldiers in civilians homes
Quebec Act -Greater Liberties to Catholic-Extended Quebec territory = limited westward expansion-allowed the French residents of Quebec to retain their traditional political and religious
Non-Importation Agreement boycotts against British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act and later the Townshend Act and Intolerable Acts; agreements were in its most effective form of protest against British policies
Battle of Lexington (1775) a. Militias stockpiling arms b. British - arrest leadership = end the movement c. Soldiers (Boston) - concord, Mass. (minutemen) d. Shot fired (unknown) = 8 killed
Battle of Concord a. Militia = numerous causalities against "redcoats" b. British forced to return to Boston
Loyalist a. Remained loyal to the British crown b. Merchants dependent on Anglo-America trade c. Anglican (Church of England) d. Governmental official e. Those fearful of losing British military protection f. British liberties vs the Unknown
Patriots a. Property owners b. Urban artisans c. Puritans d. supported American Rev. & fought British
Olive Branch Petition a. John Dickson b. Attempted reconciliation c. Ignored by the Crown
"Common Sense" (1776): pamphlet written by Thomas Paine urging colonial people to declare their independence an establish a republican gov./helped convince colonist to help with revolution b. called for independent republic c. Power from the people
Declaration of Independence a. July 4, 1776 b. Thomas Jefferson c. Formal pronouncement of independence d. approved by congress e. Allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and serve an inspirational for later revolutionary movements worldwide
Articles of Confederation Ratified 1777 - Little to no central gov. - National gov. = no power to tax or regulate trade - Amendments - unanimous consent of all states - National gov. - unable to levy taxes - Printed money to pay for the war = inflation
Battle of Saratoga (October 1777) Decisive colonial victory in upstate NY which helped secure French support for Revolutionary War
Battle of Yorktown 1781-George Washington with the aid of the French army besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown while the French Naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore; Cornwallis surrendered
Treaty of Paris (1783): peace treaty signed by Britain and US that ended Revolutionary War; British recognized American independence and cede from their territory east of Mississippi and US promise to restore loyalist land and pay back British debtors
Shay's Rebellion a. Western Mass. - backcountry attack on coastal elite b. 1,500 (mostly farmers) recently evicted or facing foreclose c. Burned down bankruptcy courts
The Northwest Ordinance created a policy for an administrating NW terrotories including path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into terrotories
Land Ordinance provided for the sale of land and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying national debt
Federalist proponents of the 1787 Constitution, favored strong national gov. argueing that the checks and balances in new Constitution would safeguard people's liberties
Anti-Federalist opponents of the constitution; against central government and feared encroachment on the people's liberties a. Against ratification - favored strong states' rights (weak national gov b. Some argued for Bill of Rights (1791)
New Jersey Plan a. Modify articles b. Equal representation from each state
Virginia Plan a. New Government b. Checks and Balanced c. Representative based on pop. Of each state
Connecticut Compromise a. also called great compromise b. Bi-Cameral Legislature: Senate + House of Representative c. Senate -- Elected by State Legislatures = state right d. House of representatives - elected by the people = interests of the electorate
Three Fifths Compromise determined that each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person for the purpose of of apportionating taxes and representation; compromise granted disproportionate politcal power to southern states
Bill of Rights first ten amendments of the constitution;reserve key rights for individuals and reserve all state powers that are not specified int he constitution
French Revolution (1789) Luis XVI deposed - later executed-Constitutional restraints-Social upheaval - nobility and the church persecuted 1,000s killed-Social&political equality-declaration of rights of man-Abolition of feudalism-Revolutionary wars 1792 french victories Napoleon
Albany Plan of Union 1. Colonists Attempt to Unify a. Seven Colonies b. Benjamin Franklin c. Inter-colonial Government d. Tax collection colonial defense (e. Attempted treaty with Iroquois Plan- Not adopted g. No colony gave up right to tax themselves
Acadia French and Indian War - British victory (1755) Fort Beausejur expulsion of Acadians (Cajuns) and NA
Battle of Montreal British victory during French and Indian War; after Battle of Quebec and last French stronghold in Canada (aka no more French)
Stamp Act Resolve Declaratory Act=Asserted Rights of Parliament to tax the colonies repealed stamp act - Patrick Henry called people to selv-gov Virginia resolve to stamp act
US Constitution laws of the USA for the federalists party
Franco-American Alliance American wanted the French revolution to stronger their bond to become "friendlier" allies a. Broad similarities but different experiences b. Both countries saw themselves as pioneers of liberty c. Promoted republican ideals
The Annapolis Convention Convention before the Philadelphia convention; not many colonies showed up and showed that movement was maybe dying
Constitutional Convention all colonies get together and planned out future of the contry and wrote out US COnstitution
Federalism strong central government (federalist like)
Created by: snossenkopp