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Genetics & Stuff

Mitosis, Meosis, chrmotin, chromosomes, genes

Mendel's First Law of Segregation During gamete formation in Anaphase 1 of meiosis alleles for a trait separate into diff. gametes to recombine during fertilization to form traits for offspring. When F1 generation is crossed to form new offspring, previously recessive traits are seen.
Mendel's Second Law of Independent Assortment Alleles of genes on non-homologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation. Due to alignment of bivalents during metaphase1. Alleles for different traits are distributed to the offspring independently of one another. One gene at a time
Test Cross Used to see if a dominant phenotype is homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
Monohybrid Cross The 4 box punnet square, used when finding results for one trait.
Dihybrid Cross The 16 box punnet square. When finding results for two different traits
Hybridization The act or process of mating organisms of different varieties or species to create a hybrid or The process of forming a double stranded nucleic acid from joining two complementary strands of DNA (or RNA).
Cytokinesis The last phase of Mitosis & Meiosis, when the cells separate or when the new plant wall is formed. Failure or which result in a cell w/ 2 nucleuses.
Autosomal Recessive A recessive trait is passed down. Not all are affected and some are carriers of the recessive trait.
X-linked recessive Only men are affected because it affects the X chromosome. Can skip a generation.
Gamete egg/sperm
Allele Alternative versions of genes, account for variations in a phenotype. Get one from each parent.
TATA box In eukaryotic promotors it is the recognition site for transcription factors
DNA Polymerase III Adds nucleotides toe the 3' end of a growing DNA strand in leading and lagging strand synthesis.
Primase Synthesizes short segments of RNA required for leading and lagging strand replication
Ligase Binds two strands of replicated DNA together
Created by: Tain45