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WVSOM -- Genetics

WVSOM -- Differentiation

What is differentiation? the process of transformation into a different cell type
What is determination? when a cell is specified to differentiate into another type
What is commitment the point when a cell must differentiate into another type so that it looses the ability to differentiate into any other cell types
When can determination and commitment occur? before or after differentiation
What are differentiated cells? specialized cells with limited or no ability to transofrm into other cell types
What are undifferentiated cells? cells that have not transformed into a specialized cell type
What are specialized cell types? cells with distinctive morphological characteristics and/or molecular processes.
What id dedifferentiation for a specialized cells to trasnform into a cells specialized cell type
What is anaplasia? dedifferntiation to an embryonic cell type
What is metaplasia? Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another
What is neoplasm? abnormal, new growth
What is totipotency ability to differentiate into any cell type
What are examples of totipotency? germ line, gametes, zygotes and early blastomeres
What are pluripotency and multipotency ability to differentiate into multiple cell types
What are examples of pluripotency and multi potency? hemopoietic cells and fibroblases
When is pluripotency used? for less differentiated cells
What are stem, precursor or progentior cells? cells that differentiate into other cells types
What are blastomeres? early embryonic cells
What are blast cells stem cells from any embryonic stage
What is mesenchyme loosely organized blast cells from all 3 germ layers
What is autonomous specialization? intracellular signals that control differentiation
What is intercellular induction? signals between cells controlling cellular differentiation
What are hormones? non-nutrient molecules secreted by a cell to induce a response in another cell
What are growth factors? hormones that control growth and development
What are characteristics of differentiated cells? Specialized structures and/or features Slow or arrested cell cycle Impaired ability to transform into other cell types
Is differentiation an all or nothing process? no. Some cells are more differentiated than others
What is an example of different levels of differentiation? zygote < hemopoitic cell < leukocyte
The more differentiated a cell is, the _________ the ability to regenerate. lower
What are examples of differentiated cells that have virtually no ability to regenerate and why? nerve and muscle because they are SO specialized they can't be regenerated
What are examples of differentiated cells that are able to regenerate and why? skin and liver because they are not highly specialized.
Created by: tjamrose