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Chapter 11 I & D

Mecca Islamic holy city.
Bedouins They're a part of a desert-dwelling Arabian ethnic group.
Kaaba Cube in arabic, is the sacred building in the middle of a great mosque in Saudi Arabia.
Khadija First wife of Muhammad, she was the first to convert to Islam.
Quran The Islamic "Bible".
People of the Book Other Religions, such as Judaism and Christianity.
Sharia Moral code and religious law of prophetic religion.
Oasis Fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra They journey Muhammad and his follwers made from Mecca for Yathrib.
Monotheistic The belief in one God.
Mosque Islam house of worship.
Hajj A religious trip to Mecca.
Jihad The effort in God's services.
Abu Bakr Muhammad's first caliph.
Battle of Tours The battle at Tours, France, which pushed the muslims out of Europe.
Fatima and Ali The daughter and son-in-law of Muhammad.
Sufi Were another tradition of muslims, which fasted and meditated.
Umayyads A dynasty that reigned until 750, where they were overthrown.
Abbassids A dynasty that overthrew the Umayyads. They ended Arab dominance and made Islam a universal religion.
Harun al-Rashid A very wealthy Caliph. He was extremely generous and very helpful.
Seljuks They were Turks who migrated into the Middle East from Central Asia. They adopted Islam and built a large empire across the fertile crescent.
Tamerlane A muslim Mongol leader, who took muslim and non-muslim lands.
Caliph A succesor to Muhammad.
Minaret The slender towers on a mosque.
Muezzin A cryer who climbs to the top of the minaret and calls people to prayer.
Sultan Authoratized wealthy person.
Omar Khayyam A muslim scholar and astronomer.
Averroes He was first interested in every subject and profession. But he is best know for being a muslim philosopher.
Muhammad al-Razi Was one of the most original medical thinkers.
Avicenna A Persian physician who wrote the Canon of Medicine, an encyclopedia about all medical practices.
Social Mobility The ability to move up in social class
Arabesque An intricate design composed of curved lines that suggest floral shapes.
Calligraphy Beautiful handwriting.
Sikhism The religion taught by Nanock, which was a blending of Islam and Hindu. The people of the religion later turned into a military, which clashed with Mughal rulers.
Babur A Mongol invader who was a military genius, poet and author.
Mughal The Persian word for Mongol.
Nur Jahan The daughter-in-law of Akbar the Great
Taj Mahal A mausoleum made for Shah Jahan's wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste Social groups from which they could not change.
Rajah Local Hindu rulers.
Sinan A janizary military engineer, who created many mosques and palaces.
Isfahan A magnificent capital of the Safavid Empire.
Millet Religious communities.
Janizary The elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah A king.
Created by: schmidt55