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Chapter 11


Mecca a bustling market town at the crossroads of two main caravan routes
Bedouins form the backbone of the armies that conquered a huge empire in the 600s and 700s traded with other Arabs who had settled in oasis towns.
Kaaba an ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham
Khadija a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business.
Quran sacred text of Islam
People of the Book Jews and Christians
Sharia Islamic system of Law
Oasis fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
Hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622
Monotheistic believing in one God
Mosque Muslim house of worship
Hajj one of the five pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
Jihad in Islam, an effort in God's service
Abu Bakr The first successor to Muhammad or called caliph
Battle of tours crossed straight of Gibraltar into spain and pushed north into france. Defeated there at battle of Tours.
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law
Sufi A third tradition in Islam, spreaded Islam through missionary work
Umayyads they had to adapt from desert life to ruling large cities and huge territories to govern their empire the often relied on local officials.
Abbassids ended Arab dominance and helped make Islam a truly universal religion
Harun al-Rashid ruled from 786-809, was admired as a model ruler and viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor
Selijuks migrated into the Middle east from Central Asia
Tamerlane Mongol leader Timur the Lame
Caliph Successor to Muhammad
Minaret slender tower of a mosque
Muezzin mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
Sultan Muslim ruler
Omar Khayyam Muslim poet, Mathematician, and astronomer, wrote the Rubaiyat
Muhammad al-Razi the head physician of Baghdad's chief hospital, wrote many books including on measles and small pox, challenged and accepted medical practices
Avicenna great Muslim physician, philosopher and mathematician
Social Mobility ability to move up in a class
Arabesque intricate design made up of curbed lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware
Caligraphy fancy or stylized handwriting
Sikhism blend of Islam (one god) and Hinduism (many gods)
Babur Founder of Mughal dynasty in India, descended from Turkic warriors
Mughal Persian word for Mongol
Nur Jahan the wife of Jahangir who did most of the ruling, most powerful ruler in Indian History
Taj Mahal created a strong government
Sultanate land ruled by a sultan
Caste in traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
Rajah elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan royal architect, a janizary military engineer, designed hundreds of mosques and palaces
Millet in the ottoman empire a religious community of non Muslims
Janizary Elite force of the ottoman army
Shah King
Created by: crystal345