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JH-Civil War

JAHKMLHS C11 The Civil War

TermDefinition
Robert Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter to the Confederates
border states Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware.
martial law military commanders are placed in control of civilian areas and citizens’ rights and freedoms are suspended
Anaconda Plan Winfield Scott’s design for conquering the south by blockading Southern ports and capturing the Mississippi;
cotton diplomacy foreign policy used by the Confederates to attempt to receive foreign aid and recognitions of southern independence
embargo restriction of exporting cotton was proposed by Southern newspapers as a way of forcing France and England to recognize southern independence
April 12, 1861 date on which the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter
P. G. T. Beauregard Confederate general who order the firing on Fort Sumter; also commanded at Bull Run and at Shiloh.
Star of the West ship sent by President Buchanan to bring supplies and more troops to Fort Sumter; fired on by the cannon at Fort Moultrie
April 14, 1861 date on which Fort Sumter was formally surrendered to the Confederates
James B. Eads had the government contract to build the ironclads (turtles) for the Mississippi
John Brown abolitionist who led an attack on a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry in 1859
Thomas Jackson received his nickname from General Barnard Bee at the first Battle of Bull Run during his stout defense of Henry Hill; one of Lee's most trusted generals
First Bull Run first large scale battle of the Civil War that was treated more like a “tail-gating” party by some in the North the North
casualties the killed, wounded, and missing in action during a single battle or for an entire war
George McClellan hesitant to attack, was always asking for more men; always believed that he was outnumbered especially in the Peninsula Campaign
July 21, 1861 date of the first major battle of the Civil War
Wilmer Mclean Civil War began in this man’s kitchen and ended in his parlor.
Monitor “cheesebox” on a raft clashed with a Confederate ironclad at Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862.
Shiloh in this two day battle in the West Grant was ultimately victorious even though he had been caught unaware; Grant had been gathering his army together to attack Corinth
Ulysses S. Grant forced Lee to surrender; he won key victories in the western theater during the early part of the Civil War.
Samuel M. Pook designed ironclads (“turtles”) to operate on the Mississippi and its tributaries
Trent affair political situation in which two Southern representatives to England were forcibly removed from a British ship; Britain even sent soldiers to Canada
Ben Butler the military commander in New Orleans who gave the order that any woman who showed disrespect to a Union soldier should be treated as a prostitute; Lincoln removed him from command in 1862.
Fort Donelson victory by Grant marked the first of three Confederate armies captured and gave Grant his nickname from the reply to Buckner about the terms of surrender: “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.”
David Farragut commanded the Union blockade of the western Gulf of Mexico captured the port of New Orleans by slipping past the two forts guarding the southern approach to the city at night
Virginia Confederate ironclad built by refitting a Union ship previously known as the Merrimack
Albert Sidney Johnston Confederate general bled to death at Shiloh because he had sent his doctor to help out some wounded Union soldiers and his men did not know enough to apply a tourniquet.
George McClellan became general of the Army of the Potomac after the debacle of the first battle of Bull Run
Glorieta Pass This battle, fought in New Mexico territory, has been dubbed the “Gettysburg of the West.” The Confederates were stopped when Major John Chivington destroyed their supply train.
Star of the West ship, sent by President Buchanan to bring supplies and more troops to Fort Sumter, was fired on by the cannon at Fort Moultrie
Dangerfield Newby first of the raiders killed at Harper’s Ferry in 1859; Black man who had joined to free wife and children
Richard Parker judge who sentenced John Brown to death.
Pottawatomie Creek place where five proslavery men, including James Doyle, were killed in retaliation for Lawrence and for the Sumner caning
Pea Ridge A Union victory in this battle put Missouri into Union hands for the next two years even though the battle took place in Arkansas
contraband captured war supplies
Stand Watie This Cherokee became a general in the Southern army and an excellent guerrilla leader in the west. He was the last Confederate general to surrender.
Ambrose Burnside This reluctant Union general ordered his men to attack the Confederates behind a stonewall in front of the sunken road at the base of Marye’s Heights at Fredericksburg.
Antietam This was the first major battle fought on Union soil; the South needed a decisive victory to possible gain help from Britain.
John Pope This general of the Army of the Potomac boasted that his troops in the west had always seen the backs of the enemy; he was crushed by Lee at the second Battle of Bull Run.
William Tecumseh Sherman This man who was accused of insanity by the press was the stalwart commander at Pittsburg Landing. Though wounded in the battle he refused to leave the field. He became perhaps Grant’s most trusted general.
Peninsula Campaign series of battles in early 1862 superior Northern army marching to take Richmond; Union commander constantly demanded more troops because he was led to believe by Allan Pinkerton that the Southern forces always outnumbered the Union forces.
Shenandoah Valley Early in the war this area of Virginia was the scene of some of Jackson’s greatest triumphs; later in the war Sheridan destroyed much of the crops that could be used to feed the Confederate army.
Fredericksburg This battle included an area which became known as the “great slaughter pen” because the Union suffered nearly 12,000 casualties.
Chickamauga In this battle Braxton Bragg led his troops to a pyrrhic victory over William Rosecrans; however, the main objective of recovering Chattanooga could not be achieved. Union General George Henry Thomas earned his nickname “Rock...”
Alabama This ship, commanded by Raphael Semmes, spent about two years destroying or capturing Union cargo ships; it was destroyed by the USS Kearsage.
Joseph Hooker This Union General developed a strong strategic and daring plan that might have trapped the Army of Virginia at Chancellorsville.
Chancellorsville This battle might have seen the complete destruction of the Army of the Potomac; however, the South lost one of its great generals “Stonewall” Jackson when he was wounded by his own men.
JEB Stuart He was the flamboyant leader of Confederate cavalry; he twice led his cavalry around the Union forces.
Robert Gould Shaw He commanded the 54th Massachusetts, the first all black regiment in the Union Army.
Fort Pillow This “massacre” in which Confederates killed 200 black soldiers became a rallying cry for the Union.
Created by: jim.haferman