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Chapter 8 S.S. Vocab

Louis Sullivan An architect who built the first skyscrapers.
Daniel Burnham Designed the 285 ft tower in 1902 called the Flatiron Building.
Frederick Law Olmsted A landscaper. Designed Central Park and other beautiful parks.
Orville and Wilbur Wright Bicycle manufacturers who experimented with new engines powerful enough to keep "heavier-than-air" craft aloft. First built a glider then commissioned a four-cylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and designed a biplane with a 40' 4" wing
George Eastman Developed a series of more convenient alternatives to the heavy glass plates previously used. Photographers could now could use flexible film, coated with gelatin emulsions and could send their film to a studio to be processed.
Booker T. Washington The prominent African American educator, believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society. Headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute Founded in 1881, and led by Booker T. Washington, to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in the trades and agriculture.
W. E. B. Du Bois Founder of the Niagara movement. Proposed that a group of educated blacks, the most "talented tenth" of the community, attempt to achieve immediate inclusion into mainstream American life.
Niagara Movement Founded by W. E. B. Du Bois in 1905 to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts.
Ida B. Wells Moved to Memphis in the 1880s to become a teacher out of slavery. Later became an editor of a local paper. Racial justice was a common topic in her articles. 3 of her African American businessman friends were lynched. Causing her to see more into what lyn
Poll Tax An annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some Southern states by anyone wishing to vote.
Grandfather Clause A provision that exempts certain people from a law on the basis of previously existing circumstances- especially a clause formerly in some Southern states' constitutions that exempted whites from the strict voting requirements used to keep African America
Segregation The separation of people on the basis of race.
Jim Crow Laws Laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities.
Plessy v. Ferguson an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Debt Peonage A system in which workers are bound in servitude until their debts are paid.
Joseph Pulitzer A Hungarian immigrant who had bought the New York World in 1883. His paper emphasized "sin, sex, and sensation" in order to surpass his competitor.
William Randolph Hearst Purchaser of the New York Morning Journal in 1895. Already owned the San Francisco Examiner, sought to outdo Pulitzer by filling the Journal with exaggerated tales of personal scandals, cruelty, hypnotism, and even an imaginary conquest of Mars.
Ashcan School A group of early 20th century American artists who often painted realistic pictures of city life- such as tenements and homeless people- thus earning them their name.
Mark Twain A novelist and humorist that inspired a host of other young authors when he declared his independence of "literature and all that bosh." Yet, some of his books have become classics of American literature.
Rural Free Delivery (RFD) The free government delivery of mail and packages to homes in rural areas, begun in 1896.
Created by: Haley.Brinkman
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