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CNS Exam2 MASH NWHSU

QuestionAnswer
[2] Which of the basal nuclei lies in the wall of the lateral ventricle? Caudate nucleus
[4] Pathology in or decreased transmitter substance (Dopamine) in the __________ results in Parkinson's disease. Substantia nigra
[4] Parkinson's disease falls into which of the two categories of basal nuclear motor dysfunction/deficits? hypokinesia and hypertonia Overexcitation (loss of inhibition)
[4] By which descending motor tracts does the vestibulocerebellum affect the lower motor neurons of the lumbar cord? Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract MLF and Medial Vestibulospinal Tract (Email)
[2] List the afferents to the left dentate nucleus: inhibitory stimuli from the _________ cells located in the ___________. R purkinje cells R pontocerebellum
[2] List the afferents to the left dentate nucleus: excititory stimuli from _________ nuclei via the middle cerebellar peduncle. R pontine
[2] List the afferents to the left dentate nucleus: excitatory stimuli from ________ nuclei via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. R inferior Olivary nuclei or R arcuate
[3] Name the region of the cerebellum: includes the fastigial nucleus A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Vestibulocerebellum and spinocerebellum
[2] Name the region of the cerebellum: afferents include the dorsal spinocerebellar tract A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Spinocerebellum
[4] Name the region of the cerebellum: is phylogenically the oldest portion A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Vestibulocerebellum
Name the region of the cerebellum: is the most important region for fine motor control A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Pontocerebellum
[2] Name the region of the cerebellum: efferents terminate in the red nuleus A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum spinocerebellum and pontocerebellum
Name the region of the cerebellum: in general, affect muscles on the same side of the body A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Vestibulocerebellum
[6] Which of the following may result with disturbances in the vestibular system? A. Truncal ataxia B. Nystagmus C. Dizziness D. Nausea Which part of the cerebellum would this disturbance/pathology happen. Truncal ataxia and nystagmus Vestibulocerebellum
[2] What is the most likely site of a lesion in sudden onset unilateral deafness? Left ear has a problem in the _____. peripheral lesion on that side Left periphery
[2] In the basic auditory pathway, the right inferior colliculus receives afferents from ______________. Dorsal and ventral cochlear ggl
[5] Which accessory auditory nucleus is required to discern distance and direction? superior olive nucleus
[2] What is the basis of organization in area 41 and 42. Tonotropic (Based on frequency)
[2] Describe (Don't just name) the deficit resulting from damage to the left auditory association cortex. Receptive aphasic, you can hear incoming words but you cannot put meaning to them
[5] The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on: ______ in the pathway for conscious visual awareness. Lateral geniculate
[5] The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on: _________ in the pathway for the pupillary light response. (Pupillary constriction) Superior colliculi
[5] The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on: _________ in the pathway for pupillary dilation. hypothalamus
[2] Give 2 reasons why the fovea centralis is the area of highest visual acuity. 1. Only cones (no blood vessel/neuron) 2. No convergence (1:1) (Fovea centralis is NOT in the center of the optic disc)
[2] Darken the fields which represent the retinal information going to left posterior area 17. darken left side of Left eye and Darken left side of R eye
[5] Darken the blind visual fields resulting from damage to the optic chiasm. What would likely cause this damage/interruption. Is the pupillary light response normal? If not describe. (tunnel vision) darken outer side of both circles) Tumor in Pituitary gland Yes normal
[3] Darken the blind visual field resulting from damage to the left temporal loop. Top right piece of pie on both circles.
[5] Blindness in the left eye is most likely due to a lesion located in ___ _______ the left optic nerve
[3] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents from bilateral pretectal nuclei. Edinger westphal
[4] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives chemoreceptor and barroreceptor afferents. Solitarius inferior part/caudal
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives cortical afferents ONLY fromt eh contralateral coretex. Facial motor, lower half
[2] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Reveives afferents from the contralateral lateral gaze center oculomotor
[3] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. motor to skeletal muscle of larynx, pharynx, and esophagus Ambiguous
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Fibers of the facial motor nucleus pass posterior to it. Trigeminal motor
[4] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic fibers join the glossopharyngeal nerve Ambiguous and Inferior salivatory
[2] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives taste afferents Solitarious superior part
[5] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. fibers terminate on the pterygopalatine ganglion superior salivatory/lacrimal
[2] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. parasympathetic to the stomach dorsal motor nucleus
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. At the same brainstem level as the inferior colliculus. inferior salivatory
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Efferent fibers pass between the olive and the pyramid. Abducens
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Innervates muscles derived from Arch I Edinger Westphal
[2] The neostriatum receives afferents from wide areas of the cerebral cortex, from __________ and from _________. VA and VL nucleus of the thalamus Substantia Nigra
Motor deficits w/interruption of fibers in genu of left internal capsule A.Weakness in mm of mastification on the R B.Deviation of the protruded tongue C.Can't voluntarily move eyes to L D.Can't smile on R E.Can't close R eye F.Can't open R eye B. deviation of protruded toungue D. Inability to smile on the R (The rest are bilaterally innervated)
[2] The ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus projects to areas ________ of the cerebral cortex and receives afferents from ___________ via the superior cerebellar peduncle and from ______. 4 and 6 Globus/Emboliform nucleus Paleostriatum
The fastigial nucleus receives inhibitory afferents from the ________ Be Very Specific. Purkinje cell axon in the Vestibulocerebellar cortex and spinocerbellar cortex.
Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Influences the motor cortices. A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum Spinocerebellum and Pontocerebllum
[2] Name the region of the cerebellum: Especially important in large motor stereotyped movements. A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Spinocerebellum
[3] Name the region of the cerebellum: Influences lower motor neurons via the reticulospinal tracts. A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Vestibuloverebellum and spinocerebellum
[2] Name the region of the cerebellum: Receives afferents from nucleus dorsalis A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Spinocerebellum
Name the region of the cerebellum: Receives the vast majority of its input indirectly from the cerebral cortex. A. Vestibulocerebellum B. Spinocerebellum C. Pontocerebellum Pontocerebellum
[2] Vestibular nuclei communicate with the _____ via the __________. 3, 4, 6 Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Vestibular nuclei receive afferents concerning head position from the _______ via the vestibular nerve. Be very specific. Macula
Descending fibers in the anterior limb of the internal capsule terminate on _________ to influence the cerebellum. Pontine nuclei
[2] In the basic auditory pathway, the left anterior and posterior cochlear nuclei terminate on the ________________. Left and right inferior colliculus (Synapse bilaterally)
[2] Which accessory auditory nucleus terminates on teh organ of Corti? Superior olive
[2] Which portion of the basilar membrane vibrates maximally to high frequency sounds? Basal portion
[3] Which layers are separated in a detached retina? Pigmented layer and rods/cones layer of retina (photoreceptive)
[2] Where is the cortical representation of the left macular fields. Left posterior, superior and inferior calcarine gyri
[2] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives corticobulbar fibers only from the contralateral cortex Facial motor, lower portion
[2] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Projects to the left superior oblique. Trochlear, Right
[3] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the heart. Ambiguous
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Located only in the mid pons close to the chief sensory nucleus of V Trigeminal motor (Motor nucleus of V)
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents via the facial nerve. Solitarius, Supeior Part/Rostral Nucleus of the spinotrigeminal tract
[4] Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents from the left lateral gaze center. Abducens Left Oculomotor Right
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the duodenum. Dorsal motor nucleus of X
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents from the superior colliculus. Edinger Westphal
[2] Paleostriatum receives afferents from _______ and projects predominately to ___________. Neostriatum VA and VL nuclei of thalamus
The ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus recieves afferents from what three nuclei. paleostriatum, globus/emboliform, dentate
Areas 4,6 of the cerebral cortex receive afferents from __________ nucleus of the thalamus and _________ nucleus of the thalamus. Ventral lateral and ventral anterior
The neostriatum is composed of _________, _______. Caudate, putaman
Substantia nigra affects LMNs through its connections with __________. Motor nucleus with reciprocal connections with neostratum and paleostriatum
Disorders of basal nuclei usually fall into one of two categories. Name them Dyskinesia and hypotonia OR Hypokinesia and hypertonia
Choreiform movements would suggest a lesion in the _______. What other abnormality would likely accompany the chorea? Basal nuclei Ballism, athetosis, abnormal speech
[2] Consider the purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Their dendrites synapse with axons of the ______ cells and their axons synapse with _________ where they have an _______ influence. Climbing Deep nucleus Inhibitory
[2] By which descending motor tract does the vestibulocerebellum affect extraocular nuclei? Medial longitudinal fasciculus
[4] Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Influences fine motor control A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum pontocerebellum
[2] Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Incudes the interposed nuclei globose/emboliform nuclei A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum spinocerebellum
Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Receive climbing fibers A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum Pontocerebellum
Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Projects to vestibular nuclei A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum Vestibulocerebellum and spinocerebellum
[2] Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Affects LMNs through rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum spinocerebellum or ponto???
Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. Integrates sensory and vestibular info to influence muscle tone and coordination. A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebellum spinocerebellum?
Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. receives afferents from the mesencephalic nucleus A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum spinocerebellum
[2] Name the functional lobe(s) of the cerebellum described. result of lesion -> speech impairments (phonation/articulation) A.Vestibulocerebellum B.Spinocerebellum C.Pontocerebllum pontocerebellum
In the basic auditory pathway, right dorsal cochlear nucleus projects to _______. R/L inferior colliculi
In the basic auditory pathway, the right anterior cochlear nucleus projects to the ________. The ascending fibers form the _________. R/L inferior colliculi R/L lateral lemniscus
In the basic auditory pathway, the right medial geniculate receives afferents from the ________. Right inferior colliculus
In the basic auditory pathway, the right lateral lemniscus carries fibers from the _____ nuclei R/L dorsal and ventral cochlear
What is basis of organization in areas 41 and 42 of cerebral cortex? Tonotopic organization
[3] Deafness in the right ear most likely results from a lesion located? R vestibulocochlear nerve (Ossicles, organ of corti, cochlear)
[2] Receptive aphasia is likely to result from a lesion in area ________ on the ____ side 22, Left (also left cerebral artery)
Which retinal fields project to the left lateral geniculate? Darken in the appropriate areas on the diagram. Left side of both circles
[4] Information from the maculae is represented on the ______ portion of the lateral geniculate and the ________ portion of area 17 Posterior Posterior
What visual deficits would likely result from interruption of the left parietal geniculocalacrine fibers? Darken the blind visual fields. Lower right quad of both left and right eye
What is important about the lamellae of the outer segments of photoreceptor cells? Contain rhadopsin/hyperpolarize
Bipolar neurons of the retina receive information from the ____ and project to the _____ Rods and cones Ganglion cells
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives fibers whose nerve cell bodies are located in the geniculate ggl Nucleus solitarious Rostral
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receieves afferents from carotid body and carotid sinus Nucleus ambiguous
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Causes pupillary constriction Edinger Westphal nucleus
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Motor to submandibular/sublingual salivatory glands Superior salivatory/Lacrimal
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Motor to the LEFT levator palpebrae superioris L, R oculomotor
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the sphincter pupillae Edinger Westphal
Created by: T1NWHSU