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Chapter 14

The Formation of Western Europe Study Guide 25 Questions

1. What is the period in Western Europe between 500 and 1000 called? The period in Western Europe between 500 and 1000 a “dark age.”
2. What were the three problems in the Church? The three problems were: Many village priests married and had families. Such marriages were against Church rulings. • Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony. • Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishop
3. What was the canon law? It developed canon law (the law of the Church) on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
4. In what style were the churches built between about 800 and 1100? Between about 800 and 1100, churches were built in the Romanesque style.
5. What was the Gothic? In the early 1100s, a new style of architecture, known as Gothic, evolved throughout medieval Europe.
6. What was the Crusade? Shortly after this appeal, he issued a call for what he termed a “holy war, “a Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land.
7. Who was Saladin? In 1187, Europeans were shocked to learn that Jerusalem itself had fallen to a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader Saladin.
8. What was three- field system? Under this new three-field system, farmers could grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, not just on half of it.
9. What was a Guild? A guild was an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members.
10. What was the Commercial Revolution? Taken together, this expansion of trade and business is called the Commercial Revolution
11. Who were burghers? As trade expanded, the burghers, or merchant-class town dwellers, resented this interference in their trade and commerce.
12. In the 1100s, who began to visit Muslim libraries in Spain? In the 1100s, Christian scholars from Europe began visiting Muslim libraries in Spain.
13. What center of growth of learning stood a new European institution? Scholars and the University At the center of the growth of learning stood a new European institution the university.
14. Who were the earliest nations in Europe to develop a strong unified government? The earliest nations in Europe to develop a strong unified government were England and France.
15. Who was Alfred the Great and why was he so significant and what did he later call England? Only Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon king from 871 to 899, managed to turn back the Viking invaders. Gradually he and his successors united the kingdom under one rule, calling it England, “land of the Angles.”
16. Who were the Angles and who did they invade? The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that had invaded the island of Britain.
17. Who was William the Conqueror and what was Normandy? The invader was William, duke of Normandy, who became known as William the Conqueror. Normandy is a region in the north of France that had been conquered by the Vikings.
18. Which battle did the Anglo-Saxon fight? Anglo-Saxons fought the battle that changed the course of English history the Battle of Hastings.
19. What were the two goals English kings wanted to achieve? Over the next centuries, English kings tried to achieve two goals. First, they wanted to hold and add to their French lands. Second, they wanted to strengthen their own power over the nobles and the Church.
20. Who was Henry ll and what did he marry and what did marriage bring him and what did he call it? The English king Henry ll added to these holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine from France. The marriage brought Henry a large territory in France called Aquitaine.
21. What was the Magna Carta? On June 15, 1215, they forced John to agree to the most celebrated document in English history, the Magna Carta (Great Charter).
22. Who was Avignon? Avignon and the Great Schism In 1305, Philip IV persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope. Clement V, the newly selected pope, moved from Rome to the city of Avignon in France.
23. How many popes were there in total? By now, there were a total of three popes: the Avignon pope, the Roman pope, and a third pope elected by an earlier council at Pisa.
24. What was Great Schism? This began the split in the Church known as the Great Schism, or division.
25. What were some effects of the bubonic plague? Some effects were: Town populations fell. • Trade declined. Prices rose. • The serfs left the manor in search of better wages. • Nobles fiercely resisted peasant demands for higher wages, causing peasant revolts in England, France, Italy, and Belgium.
Created by: 19srizvi