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MIP 300 Unit 3

aerobic and anaerobic respiration: what kind of metabolism? chemoorganoheterotrophs
1st decarboxylation in carbohydrate metabolism pyruvate-> acetyl coA
what is made from 1 glucose in TCA? 8 nadh, 2 fadh, 2 gtp (2 pyruvates)
1 NADH yields (aerobic respiration) 3 ATP
1 FADH2 yields (aerobic respiration) 2 ATP
where is bacterial ETC? cell membrane
cytochrome proteins that carry Fe that undergo redox rxns
why more ATP from NADH than FADH2? NADH has a more positive redox potential
1 NADH/ 1 FADH2 yields (anaerobic respiration) <3, <2
fermentation glycolysis only, oxidize NADH, reduce an organic electron acceptor, forms about 2 ATP
light reactions light energy trapped, converted to chemical energy
dark reactions ATP and NADPH are used to fix CO2 into glucose, (ATP= energy; NADPH= electrons)
chemolithoautotrophy ETC only; use energy to drive biosynthesis; electrons passed to more positive acceptors
aerobic respiration donor and acceptor organic material, O2
anaerobic respiration donor and acceptor organic material, inorganic & not O2
fermentation donor and acceptor organic material, pyruvate/derivative
aerobic chemolithotrophy donor and acceptor inorganic material, O2
anaerobic chemolithotrophy donor and acceptor inorganic material, inorganic & not O2
purine double ring
pyrimidine single ring
2 H bonds (DNA/RNA) A and T / A and U
3 H bonds (DNA/RNA) C and G
DNA in eukaryotes organized in nucleosomes, wrapped around histone proteins
4 substrates in DNA replication dATP, dGTP, dCTP, dTTP; two phosphates for each to form phosphodiester bond
unwinding enzymes helicase and topoisomerase
what keeps DNA unwound? single stranded DNA binding proteins
major DNA synthesis enzyme DNA Pol III
requirements of DNA Pol III needs a template, primer, deoxynucleotide triphosphates
produces 1-5 bp primer than DNA pol III uses to initiate DNA replication primase
repair enzyme in DNA replication; removes RNA primer, adds back complementary DNA nucleotides DNA Pol I
joins free ends of DNA strands by forming phosphodiester bonds DNA ligase
proofreading done in DNA replication by DNA pol I and DNA pol III
gene definition a DNA sequence that encodes for a functional product
DNA is read... 3'-5'
mRNA or DNA is synthesized 5'-3'
how is prokaryotic transcription/translation different that eukaryotic? (6) polycistronic, no poly A tail/ 5' cap, shine-dalgarno sequence, only one rna pol, translation starts while transcription still going (both in cytoplasm), no splicing
introns/exons, which stays and which is removed? introns removed
differential splicing allows for a single gene to code for >1 protein
how many sense codons? 61 (includes AUG... Met)
code degeneracy up to 6 different codons for 1 AA
how many AAs? 20 (that are found in proteins)
what stops translation? releasing factors bind to stop codon, peptidyl transferase cleaves peptide from tRNA, then ribosome dissociates
how many ATPs for each AA? 3
spontaneous mutation occur w/out cause or exposure to an external agent (errors in DNA replication)
induced mutation caused by a mutagen
mutagen physical or chemical agent that increases the frequency of mutations by 1000 fold
point mutations (definition) single base change (1 codon)
silent mutation change in triplet code, but codes for the same AA
neutral mutation changes the amino acid, but not protein function (determined by assay)
missence mutation changes an amino acid & does affect protein function (determined by assay)
nonsense mutation change to a termination codon (must also run assay!)
frameshift mutation addition or deletion that changes the rest of the protein
chemical mutagens (3) base analogs, DNA modifying agents, intercalating agents
base analogs similar to bases; get incorporated into DNA
base analog example bromouracil- gets incorporated into DNA in place of T; will BP with A or G
DNA modifying agents mutagens that change a base's structure which changes its base-pairing behavior or specificity
DNA modifying agent example alkalyating agent- adds CH3 to O on guanine, then will pair with T
intercalating agents gets in-between bases and causes distortions in DNA (frameshift mutations)
physical mutagens (2) uv and x-rays
x-rays result in what? single and double-stranded breaks in DNA- results in lethal deletions
auxotroph a mutant that differs from parent in one trait (cannot grow on minimal media)
prototroph wild type; can grow on minimal media
ames test uses rate of reversion to determine if a chemical causes mutations above background
two controls for ames test -: auxotroph w/out mutation +:auxotroph w/ known mutagen
which 2 bacteria used for ames/what is missing? E. coli, Salmonella; missing histidine
how to find induced mutagens total cfu's-background=induced mutagens
how to find mutant frequency #revertants/backgound= mutant frequency
mutagen definition >2 mutant frequency= mutagen
photoreactivation UV light causes thymine dimer repair enzymes to be produced
severely damaged DNA, no template left to copy for excision repair: recombination repair, SOS repair
4 ways mutations can lead to antibiotic resistance 70s ribosome changes to antibiotics can't bind, inhibit antibiotic import, alternate metabolic pathway, antibiotic efflux pumps
a single pyruvate molecule that feeds into aerobic respiration will produce ___ substrate-level P in glycolysis; and ___ substrate level in TCA 0; 1
one a bacteria removes the nitrogen from a 3 carbon AA, this will feed into anaerobic respiration as 1 pyruvate
24-carbon fatty acid, how many NADH produced? 11 beta oxidation; (3 x 12 TCA) = 47
you mutate transcription termination sequence of a bacterium- what is likely true? unable to form stem loop
NADPH in photosynthesis does what? donates electrons to CO2 to make organic material
1 glucose= how many ATP from oxidative phosphorylation? 38-4 substrate level= 34
primase is DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Created by: melaniebeale