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Linux Bash Commands

QuestionAnswer
ls directory listing
ls -al formatted listing with hidden files
cd dir change directory to dir
cd - change to home
pwd show current directory
mkdir dir create a directory dir
rm file delete file
rm -r dir delete directory dir
rm -f file force remove file
rm -rf dir force remove directory dir *
cp file1 file2 copy file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it doesn't exist
mv file1 file2 rename or move file1 to file2 if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into directory file2
ln -s file link create symbolic link link to file
touch file create or update file
cat > file places standard input into file
more file output the contents of file
head file output the first 10 lines of file
tail file output the last 10 lines of file
tail -f file output the contents of file as it grows, starting with the last 10 lines Process Management
ps display your currently active processes
top display all running processes
kill pid kill process id pid
killall proc kill all processes named proc *
bg lists stopped or background jobs; resume a stopped job in the background
fg brings the most recent job to foreground
fg n brings job n to the foreground File Permissions
chmod octal file change the permissions of fileto octal, which can be found separately for user,group, and world by adding:● 4 – read (r)● 2 – write (w)● 1 – execute (x)Examples:chmod 777 – read, write, execute for allchmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world
ssh user@host connect to host as user
ssh -p port user@host connect to host on port port as user
ssh-copy-id user@host add your key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login
grep pattern files search for pattern in files
grep -r pattern dir search recursively for pattern in dir
command | grep pattern search for pattern in the output of command
locate file find all instances of file
date show the current date and time
cal show this month's calendar
uptime show current uptime
w display who is online
whoami who you are logged in as
finger user display information about user
uname -a show kernel information
cat /proc/cpuinfo cpu information
cat /proc/meminfo memory information
man command show the manual for command
df show disk usage
du show directory space usage
free show memory and swap usage
whereis app show possible locations of app
which app show which app will be run by default Compression
tar cf file.tar files create a tar named file.tar containing files
tar xf file.tar extract the files from file.tar
tar czf file.tar.gz files create a tar with Gzip compression
tar xzf file.tar.gz extract a tar using Gzip
tar cjf file.tar.bz2 create a tar with Bzip2 compression
tar xjf file.tar.bz2 extract a tar using Bzip2
gzip file compresses file and renames it to file.gz
gzip -d file.gz decompresses file.gz back to file
ping host ping host and output results
whois domain get whois information for domain
dig domain get DNS information for domain
dig -x host reverse lookup host
wget file download file
wget -c file continue a stopped download
./configuremakemake install Installation from source
dpkg -i pkg.deb install a package (Debian)
rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm install a package (RPM)
Ctrl+C halts the current command
Ctrl+Z stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background
Ctrl+D log out of current session, similar to exit
Ctrl+W erases one word in the current line
Ctrl+U erases the whole line
Ctrl+R type to bring up a recent command
!! - repeats the last command repeats the last command
exit log out of current session
Created by: louieb39