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Genetics unit 4

Unit 4

TermDefinition
DNA Molecule that stores genetic material
Pedigree A charge with phenotypes and genotypes use Chiterm and who in the family is a carrier for a recessive allele
Somatic cell Body cell, makes up all tissues organs and muscles
Phenotype Collection of an organisms physical characteristics, what you see
Protein Polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Transgenic organisms Organism whose genome has been altered to contain two or more genes from another organism
Monohybrid cross cross or meeting between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
Gamete Sex cell (egg/sperm)
RNA A copy of one gene strand of DNA aids and replication
Carrier Organism who carries a certain allele
Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on the homes on
Ribosome Organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
Translation Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Clone genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism
Meiosis Form of nuclear division of a diploid cell into haploid cells, sexual reproduction
Dominant Allele, always expressed when present
Incomplete dominance Heterozygotes phenotype blend of two homozygous genes/traits
Sex chromosome Chromosomes that directly control sexual development
Double helix Model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, two strands
Nucleotide Monomer the forms DNA and has a phosphate group, sugar and a nitrogen containing base
Replication The process in which DNA reproduces
Autosome Chromosome that contains jeans for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
Karyotype Image of all the chromosomes in a cell
M. RNA Carries genetic info from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it becomes a template for protein synthesis or translation
T. RNA Brings amino acids to the ribosome
Codominance Heterozygotes genotype that equally expresses the traits from both alleles
Codon Sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Genetics Study of heredity patterns and variation of organisms
Diploid Sell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from each gamete
Zygote Sell that forms when a male gametes fertilizes a female gametes
Heterozygous Characteristic of having two different alleles
Homozygous Characteristic of having two of the same alleles
Gene Specific region of DNA that codes for particular protein
Amino acid Molecule that makes up protein
Punnett square Model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross or mateing
Monohybrid cross Cross or mating between an organism that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
Transcription Process of copying the nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of M.RNA
Haploid Sell that has only one copy of each chromosome
Recessive And allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organisms gene type, ex: rr
Genotype Collection of all an organism's genetic info that codes for treats, the letters
Created by: 18verheb