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WVSOM -- Histology

Gastrointestinal System

What is in the oral cavity? Mucosa Submucosa Lips Tongue Taste buds
What makes up the mucosa of the oral cavity? stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium and a lamina propra of loose connective tissue
What is the core of the lips Skeletal muscle called orbicularis oris
What is the orbicularis ors? skeletal muscle core of the lips
What is the outer surface of the lips? It is lined with skin
Histological features of the tongue (6) stratified squamous keratinized epithelium Papillae Skeltal Muscle Serous and mucus glands Glands of Von Ebner Taste buds
Inner surface of the lips oral muscoa with labial glands in the lamina propria
Papillae of the tongue Contain receptors for taste
Gland of Von ebner Serous glands of the oral cavity Wash out the taste buds
Filiform paillae elongated and partially keratinized cover the dorsal surface of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Fungiform papillae mushroom-shpaed Scattered over the dorsal surface of teh tounge and contain taste buds
(Circum)vallate papillae lie along the sulcus terminalis that divides the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. Extremely large and surrounded by a groove, or oat. Empty their secretions into teh moat around the papilla have taste buds
Waldeyer's Ring An interrupted circle of protective lymphoid tissue at the upper ends of the respiratory and alimentary tracts
Lingual Tonsil diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes or multiple small nodules. Below epithelium of the posterior third of the tongue
Layers of the tooth Ameloblasts enamil Dentin Odontoblasts papilla
Crown of tooth projects above the gingiva
Gingiva mucous membrane that is attached to teh alveolar periosteum and surrounds teh neck of the tooth
root of the tooth projects below the gingiva
Pulp core of the tooth that is made up of loose connective tissue
Pulp cavity contains the pulp
Dentin Calcified tissue that covers the pulp
Dentin is made up of odontoblasts
Dentin growth formation continues through life
What part of the tooth gets smaller pulp cavity
Enamel covers the dentin on the crown of teh tooth. Hardest surface in the body
Enamel is made up of ameloblasts
Where are ameloblasts? cover the surface of the developing tooth
General organization of the digestive tract From inside out: Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa Serosa
Mucosa of the GI tract epithelium (simple squamous or cuboid) Lamina Protpria Muscularis mucosa
Muscularis mucosa smooth muscle that can contract under the sympathetic nervous system
Submucosa Below the mucosa Dense irregular connective tissue Contains meissner's plexus
Muscularis externa moves the food toward the anal canal big ring of muscle
Serosa (adventitia) layer of loose connective tissue which is not covered by a mesothelial covering (visceral peritoneum) Mesothelium Connective tissue
Histological Features of the Esophagus (4) Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium Skeletal muscle (top 1/3 and mixed in middle 1/3) Smooth muscle (bottom 1/3 and mixed in the middle 1/3) Serous-mucus glands in the submucosa
Layers of esophagus Lumen Epithelium Lamina propria muscularis mucosa muscularis externa
Mucosa of esophagus epithelium + lamina propria + muscularis mucosa
What glands are found in lamina propria of esophagus? mucus-secreting esophageal cardiag glands
Muscularis mucosa is a single longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
Submucosa of the esophagus esophageal glands (serous) Muscularis externa
Muscularis externa of esophagus skeletal in upper third smooth and skeletal in middle third smooth muscle in lower third
Histological features of the stomach (3) Cardiac Fundic Pyloric
Body of stomach fundus
Cardiac glands of the stomach mucous cells that secrete mucus and lysozyme
lysozyme bacteriocidal enzyme
Gastric glands Found in fundus of stomach.
Cell types of gastric glands undifferentiated stem cells mucous neck cells parietal cells chief cells enteroendrocrine cells
Lamina propria of stomach has gastric pits on surface of epithelium into the lamina propria. Lined with mucous cells Gastric glands
Gastric Glands branched tubular glands at the bottom of the pits in the lamina propria
3 types of gastric glands cardiac glands gastric (fundic) glands Pyloric glands
Pit to gland ratio of cardiac stomach 1:1 length of gland should be the same as length of pit
Fundic Glands can be divided into 3 parts isthmus neck body
Cells found in isthmus parietal cell mucous neck cell
Cells of body chief cell argentaffin cell
Surface mucous cells secrete mucin
Mucous neck cells secrete alkaline mucin
parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor
Chief Cells secrete pepsinogen
enteroendocrine cells secrete gastrin
Pit/Gland ratio in the pyloric area 2:1 long pits and short glands
Pyloric glands are found in the pyloric region of the stomach
Cells of the pyloric glands mucous cells enteroendocrine cells parietal cells undifferentiated stem cells
Mucous cells of the pyloric glands secrete mucus and lysozyme
Enteroendocrine cells of the pyloric glands G cells secrete gastrin D cells secrete somatostatin
gastrin stimulates the parietal cells in the gastric glands to secrete HCl
Somatostatin regulates the release of the other hormones
Parietal cells in the pyloric stomach in limited number
Histological features of the duodenum simple columnar epithelium muscularis mucosa Brunner's Glands in submucosa Smooth muscle
Brunner's Glands only glands in submucosa past the esophagus secrete alkaline mucus that protects the mucosa from gastric acid. Maintains pH for pancreatic enzymes to work
Muscularis externa of intestines inner circular and out longitudal layers of smooth muscle Auerbach's plexus found between the two layers
Histological features of the jejunum and ileum long villi with lacteals crypts of lieberkuhn smooth muscle
Crypts of Lieberkuhn space in dark ridges
Histological features of the jejunum and ileum simple columnar epithelium long villi with lacteals crypts of lieberkuhn smooth muscle
Crypts of Lieberkuhn space in dark ridges
Villus Structure Villus and Crypt
Villus cells absorptive cells goblet cells Enteroendocrine cells crypt cells stem cells paneth cells
Paneth cells found in base of crypts they secrete antibacterial enzyme lysozyme
Enteroendocrine cell products of the small intestine secretin cholecystokinin gastric inhibiotry peptide motilin
Secretin stimulates growth and secretino of the exocrine pancreas
cholecystokinin stimulates growth and secretino of teh exocrine pancreas and contractino of teh smooth muscle of teh gall bladder, but inhibits gastric eptying
GIP gastric inhibitory peptide Inhibits HCl secretion by teh pareital cells in stomach
Motilin increases gut motility
Illeum can be differentiated by having Peyer's patches
Appendix similar sturcture to the colon but has shorter crypts of leiberkuhn and no teniae coli Large amounts of lymphoid tissue
Hirschsprung's disease absence of ganglion cells in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of teh rectum. Feces remain in the colon causing it to enlarge
Histological features of the colon simple columnar epithelium NO vili crypts of leiberkuhn smooth muscle: teniae coli
Teniae Coli smooth rubber band sections of muscle
Anal Canal Look for apocrine glands Hair follicles stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium smooth and skeletal muscle
External sphincter is what kind of muscle? skeletal
Created by: tjamrose



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