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Spatial Areas

AICP Exam Prep HCC - Spatial Areas of Practice 1

QuestionAnswer
National Level Planning involves what? environment, transportation, housing, federal programs
How is national level planning defined? by regulations that effect the entire country - NEPA regulations, actions of federal agencies (Ex. location of levees by the US Army Corp of Engineers)
Planning for Multi-State or Bi-State Regions involves what? environment, transportation, may involve protection of water resources, air quality, or linkage of transportation systems
How is multi-state or bi-state regional planning defined? by waterfront or history and culture (Ex, Chesapeake Bay watershed, New England, TVA, NY Port Authority)
Planning for State involves what? environment, transportation, encouraging local communities to adopt building codes or to develop hazard mitigation plans, may address food issues
Dillon's Rule relationship between a state and local govt whereas local jurisdictions have no powers except those explicitly assigned to them by the state
Home Rule relationship between a state and local govt whereas local jurisdictions can do whatever they want unless the state specifically prohibits it - states transfer power to the local govt to adopt regulations
Planning for Sub-State Regions (Regional) involves what? environment, transportation, corridors
How is planning for sub-state regions (regional) defined? geography or by economic connections (Ex. Outer Bank in NC. Silicon Valley in CA) - economic factors (Ex. newspapers, shared television stations)
What are some aspects of sub-state (regional) planning? larger the region, the more complex the planning because of the greater number of jurisdictions - local govts must recognize their dependence on one another to be effective - offers more comprehensive and integrated way to manage environment
Planning at the County Level involves what? parks, transportation, land use
How is planning at the county level defined? political boundaries (Ex. Christian County, KY)
What does planning at the county level address? challenges facing local agriculture and implement policies to protect agricultural land from sprawl
Planning for Urban Areas involves what? zoning, land use, redevelopment, parking, traffic, parks
How is planning for urban areas defined? population or political boundaries (Ex. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) or Hopkinsville, KY)
What does planning for urban areas address? large number of vacant lots in distressed areas and work to put them to productive use (Ex. community gardens and new residential development projects)
Planning for Suburban Areas involves what? zoning, land use, infrastructure, sprawl, growth areas
How is planning for suburban areas defined? style of land use or history of commuting patterns (Ex. northern suburbs of Washington, D.C.)
What does planning for suburban areas address? suburban development contributes to the decline in the supply of farmland and is reducing capacity to produce food locally - concerns with the aging of infrastructure and challenges of infill development
Planning for Small Towns (Rural) involves what? infrastructure, growth, employment opportunities, agriculture
How is planning for small towns (rural) defined? political boundaries
What does planning for small towns (rural) address? ordinances to regulate light, noise pollution and protect the character of a town, establishes soil and water conservation districts and land conservation measures (Ex. urban growth boundaries, greenways, conservation easements, land trusts)
Corridor Planning involves what? transportation, circulation, access, streetscaping, signage
How is corridor planning defined? an area of land along a linear route
At what scale is corridor planning? it varies and it could involve several jurisdictions: could be a small part of an important commercial street or it could be a very large area such as I-95 from Boston to Washington, D.C.
What is the goal of corridor planning? to coordinate capital improvements and accessibility along the corridor
Neighborhood Planning involves what? this is the most detailed spatial area - involves residential, sidewalks, parks, character
How is neighborhood planning defined? no universal way to define - could be defined by history, geography, street boundaries, administrative boundaries, socioeconomic factors, cultural traditions
What are some attributes of neighborhood planning? established organizations, schools, commercial activities, recreational facilities, facade requirements for infill development to ensure compatibility with existing structures, access to supermarkets or prevalence of convenience stores
How is Waterfront Planning defined? economic activities or location (Ex. Inner Harbor of Baltimore, Pike Place Market of Seattle)
What does waterfront planning address? need to protect people, structures, and infrastructure from damage due to natural hazards (flooding, storm surge, landslide)
Historic District Planning involves what? national register, landmarks, districts
How is historic district planning defined? architecture and cultural traditions
1st Historic District in US? Charleston, SC
What does historic district planning include? specific architectural requirements to ensure blending with the historic character of a district, measures to protect historic structures
Downtown Planning involves what? traffic, mixed use, plazas, streetscaping, pedestrians, retail. identity/branding
How is downtown planning defined? economic activity (Ex. central business district)
What are some attributes of downtown planning? network of streets, specialty shops, public spaces, sidewalks and street trees, commercial and retail, dwelling units, civic structures, landmarks, public art
What can downtown planning include? Business Improvement District (BID) and assessing a special tax to support activities that enhance the BID (Ex. sidewalk repairs, sidewalk snow removal, landscaping, festivals to promote the district)
What are some demographic trends in spatial areas of practice? fastest growing/shrinking parts of the US - rust belt - aging society
What are some technological trends in spatial areas of practice? GIS - ease of access to information - email communication - telecommuting/working from home
What are the principles of Smart Growth? create a range of housing opportunities and choices - create walkable communities - strong sense of place - mixed land uses - preserve open space - variety of transportation choices - compact building design
What are some Smart Growth technologies? urban growth boundaries, adequate public facilities, concurrency, reuse of existing buildings, impact fees
What is the goal of Smart Growth? to fight sprawl
What are some of the impacts of Smart Growth? higher density developments, increased utilization of existing infrastructure
What is the Census? count of everyone living in the US every 10 years - mandated by Congress
What is the Census used for? distribute Congressional seats, make decisions about what community services to provide, distribute $400 billion in federal funds to local, state, and tribal govts each year
What are some aspects of Transit Oriented Development? mixed use to maximize access to public transit, encourage transit ridership, high-density development, excellent pedestrian facilities, discourages sprawl
Created by: hccovi2