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Functional Areas

AICP Exam Prep HCC - Functional Areas of Practice 2

QuestionAnswer
Hazard Mitigation Efforts plan location and characteristics of development to reduce probability of damage from natural hazards
Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 requires hazard mitigation plans
How do you integrate hazard mitigation into all local planning activities? comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, capital improvement plans, downtown and corridor plans
1st City to Enact an Historic Preservation Ordinance? Charleston, SC
Historic Preservation Tools review standards, historic districts, ordinances, landmark preservation, commissions, adaptive reuse
Current US Housing Mix Central Cities=31%, Suburbs=31%, Rural Areas=38%
Homelessness 800,000 persons homeless each day
What contributes to homelessness? poverty, unemployment, lack of affordable housing, domestic violence, lack of adequate care, substance abuse
Quasi-Governmental Housing Organizations Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac
What percentage of mortgages in the US does Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac hold? 80% - 90%
Housing Concerns and Trends housing affordability, inclusionary zoning, fees-in-lieu, impact fee to fund affordable housing, group homes, halfway house, continuum of care, accessory dwelling units, adaptive reuse
Classification of Parks total lots, neighborhood gardens, active parks, passive parks, greenways, metropolitan, community, neighborhood, pocket park
What is the typical size of a regional park? 250 acres or 5 acres/1,000 people served
What is the typical size of a community park? 20 acres or 3 acres/1,000 people served
What is the typical size of a neighborhood park? 5 acres or 0.5 acres/1,000 people served
Estimating and serving the needs for social and health services libraries, schools, medical facilities, childcare facilities, grocery stores, senior living facilities, mobility and recreation, sidewalks and paths, safe routes to school, parks and playgrounds, secure bicycle lanes
Components of Urban Design vernacular architecture, context sensitive design, activity nodes, gridiron, cul-de-sac, gateways, view corridors, street connectivity, public realm, public spaces
At what level of government does basic transportation planning emanate and why? federal level because of federal legislation, oversight, and funding
Federal transportation oversight controls what? all interstates and US highways including operation and maintenance
What functions do Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) serve? plan and program transportation for cities with populations of greater than 50,000 or areas of greater than 250,000
What transportation functions do states serve? administer the Federal Highway Administration and MPO programs and conduct state roadway programs for state highways
What transportation functions do cities and counties serve? plan, partially fund, operate and maintain all local streets and roads
How do roads get planned and built? Congress reauthorizes transportation bills every 5 years and program monies - states and MPO's prepare/update State Transportation Improvement Plans for planning and programming
What does planned mean in a transportation plan sense? unfunded
What does programmed mean in a transportation plan sense? funded
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) Components improves air quality, mitigates adverse impacts of transportation construction, facilitates and coordinates use of all modes, promotes planning and management of transfer of people and products among modes
What two purposes do streets and roads serve? 1) provide mobility, 2) facilitate land access
Functional Classification of Streets process of grouping streets and roads into classes or systems according to the function they are intended to provide
Urban Principal Arterial serve longer trips, carry the highest traffic volumes, and carry a large percentage of the vehicle miles of travel (VMT) on minimum mileage and provide minimal land access
Urban Minor Arterial interconnect principal arterials, provide less mobility and slightly more land access, and distribute travel to smaller geographic areas than principal arterials
Urban Collectors provide both land access and traffic circulation with residential, commercial, and industrial areas by collecting and distributing traffic to these areas
Urban Local Streets provide direct access to adjacent land and access to the higher classified streets
Rural Principal Arterials serve longer trips of a statewide or interstate nature, carry the highest traffic volumes, connect larger urban areas, provide minimal land access, and include both interstate and non-interstate principal arterial highways
Rural Minor Arterials interconnect principal arterials, provide less mobility and slightly more land access, and distribute travel to smaller towns and major resorts attracting longer trips
Rural Major Collectors provide both land access and traffic circulation connecting county seats not served by arterials and connect intracounty traffic generators like schools, shipping points, county parks, and important mining and agricultural areas
Rural Minor Collectors collect traffic from local roads and bring all developed areas within a reasonable distance of a collector road
Rural Local Roads provide direct access to adjacent land and to the higher classified roads and serve short trips
What is Level of Service (LOS)? the ability of the road and street network to accommodate traffic flow
What are some ways to improve the Level of Service? build left turn bays, allow right turns on red, allow adequate space for traffic weaving, expand transit service, promote Transportation Demand Management (TDM), expand road and street capacity
Traffic Demand Management (TDM) strategies such as encouraging high occupancy vehicles (HOV), building HOV lanes, ride sharing, encouraging home office arrangements, using alternative modes such as transit, cycling, and pedestrian traffic
Level of Service A highest quality of service (free flow) - 15.4 or more square feet/passenger - .00 - .65 passengers/seat
Level of Service B stable flow - 15.2 - 10.0 square feet/passenger - .66 - 1.00 passengers/seat
Level of Service C stable flow but drivers are becoming restricted in their freedom to select speed, change lanes, or pass - 9.9 - 7.5 square feet/passenger - 1.01 - 1.50 passengers/seat
Level of Service D approaching unstable flow - 6.6 - 5.0 square feet/passenger - 1.51 - 2.00 passengers/seat
Level of Service E unstable flow with wide fluctuations in speed - 4.9 - 3.3 square feet/passenger - 2.01 - 3.00 passengers/seat
Level of Service F forced flow operations - 3.2 - 2.6 square feet/passenger - 3.01 - 3.80 passengers/seat
Average Vehicular Trips per Single-Family Residential 9.1 - 10.2 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Planned Unit Development (PUD) 7.9 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Duplex/Townhouse 7.0 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Apartments 6.0 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Condominiums 5.9 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Mobile Homes 5.5 trips per unit
Average Vehicular Trips per Retirement Homes 3.5 trips per unit
Benefits of Access Controls? can improve congestion problems
What are some examples of access controls? spacing access points, non-traversable medians, no left turns, requiring setbacks and frontage roads
What are the main functions of access controls? maintaining the arterial design and function, improving safety by reducing vehicle conflicts, reducing travel time loss, avoiding problems from collector type access on principal arterial streets
What factors affect parking demand? land and building use, cost of parking, socioeconomic factors of users, accessibility, alternative modes available, parking space availability
What are Surface Lot Parking Stall Size Widths and Angles? widths: 8-9 feet - angles: 60-65 degrees
Can you accommodate an increase in parking with an increase the angle of the parking space? YES - parking spaces can be reconfigured to accommodate a 20-25% increase in vehicles at an angle of 75-90 degrees
What are Parking Structure Parking Stall widths, lengths, and angles? smaller cars: 7.5' wide x 16' long at a 90 degree angle - larger cars: 9.0' wide x 18' long at a 70 degree angle
What is the effect of the parking stall width on aisle space for ingress and egress from the parking spot? smaller stall widths require more aisle space
What are the standard parking stall dimensions for a full size car? 9' wide x 18-20' long
What are the standard parking stall dimensions for a smaller car? 7.5-8.0' wide x 15-16' long
Parking Requirements: Shopping Center > 600,000 Sq Ft 1.0 - 5.0 spaces per 1,000 Sq Ft GLA
Parking Requirements: Shopping Center < 600,00 Sq Ft 1.0 - 4.0 spaces per 1,000 Sq Ft GLA
Parking Requirements: Office (GLA) 0.5 - 3.0 spaces per 1,000 Sq Ft GLA
Parking Requirements: Office (Employee) 0.1 - .75 spaces per employee
Parking Requirements: Medical Center (Bed) .75 - 4.5 spaces per bed
Parking Requirements: Medical Center (Employee) .10 - .75 spaces per employee
Parking Requirements: Industrial (GLA) .67 - 3.5 spaces per 1,000 Sq Ft GLA
Parking Requirements: Industrial (Employee) .36 - 1.6 spaces per employee
Parking Requirements: University/College (Student) .10 - .50 spaces per student
Parking Requirements: University/College (Staff Person) .80 spaces per staff person
Parking Requirements; Cinema 10 - 85 spaces per screen
Parking Requirements: Hotel .20 - 1.5 spaces per room
Parking Requirements: Restaurant 5 - 25 spaces per 1,000 Sq Ft GLA
Parking Requirements: Residential .20 - 2.0 spaces per unit
Created by: hccovi2