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History of Planning

AICP Exam Prep HCC - History

Ordinance of 1785 - rectangular land survey of Old NW - largest single act of national planning in history
1st "Model Tenement" 1855 Manhattan
Homestead Act 1862 opened lands of public domain to settlers
"Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the US" 1878 foster settlement of arid west and conserve water resources John Wesley Powell
Dumbbell Tenement 1879 multi-family housing in NYC poor living conditions - lack of light, air, space
USGS Established & Purpose 1879 survey all public domain lands
"How the Other Half Lives" 1890 stimulus to housing reform Jacob Riis
Sierra Club Founded & Purpose 1892 protect and preserve natural environment John Muir - founder
World's Columbian Exposition 1893 in Chicago 400th anniversary of discovery of New World source of City Beautiful Movement
"Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" 1898 Garden City movement Ebenezer Howard
Gilford Pinchot 1898 chief forester of US
New York State Tenement House Law 1901 outlawed tenements such a dumbbell tenements
Letchworth, England 1903 1st English Garden City stimulus to new town movement
Antiquities Act 1906 preserve archaeological sites
1st National City Planning Conference 1909 Washington, D.C.
Plan of Chicago 1909 1st metro plan in US Daniel Burnham
1st Course in City Planning 1909 Harvard
"Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago" 1912 8th grade textbook on city planning Walter D. Moody
"Carrying Out the City Plan" 1914 1st major textbook on planning Flavel Shurtleff
Harland Bartholomew 1914 1st city planner Newark, NJ
"Cities in Evolution" 1915 Patrick Geddes (Father of Regional Planning)
"Planning of the Modern City" 1916 Nelson P. Lewis
1st Comprehensive Zoning Resolution 1916 adopted in NYC Edward Bassett (Father of Zoning)
National Park Service Established & Purpose 1916 conserve and preserve resources of special value
Frederick Law Olmstead, Jr. 1917 1st president of American City Planning Institute
1st Historic Preservation Commission 1921 New Orleans - French Quarter
1st Regional Planning Commission 1922 Los Angeles County Regional Planning Commission
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act 1924 issued by US Dept of Commerce Herbert Hoover
1st City to Endorse Comprehensive Plan 1925 Cincinnati, OH
Standard City Planning Enabling Act 1928 issued by US Dept of Commerce Herbert Hoover
"The Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs - Volume II" 1929 neighborhood unit Clarence Perry
1st Instance of Rural Zoning 1929 Wisconsin
Stock Market Crash 1929 ushers in Great Depression fosters idea of public planning on a national scale
Federal Home Loan Bank System Established & Purpose 1932 to shore up shaky home financing institutions
TVA Created & Purpose 1933 most famous experiment in river-basin planning
American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) Founded 1934
National Housing Act 1934 established FSLIC for insurance savings deposits established FHA for insuring individual home mortgages
Resettlement Administration 1935 experiment in population resettlement built 3 Greenbelt Towns (Greenbelt, MD - Greendale, WI - Greenhills, OH) Rexford Tugwell
Soil Conservation Act 1935 made prevention of soil erosion a national responsibility
Social Security Act 1935 created a safety net for elderly
US Housing Act (1937) $500 million in loans for low-cost housing tied slum clearance to public housing
Serviceman's Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) 1944 guaranteed loans for homes to veterans
Housing Act (1949) 1st comprehensive housing legislation constructed 800,000 homes urban redevelopment program
National Trust for Historic Preservation Created 1949
Housing Act of 1954 stressed slum prevention and urban renewal stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 by providing funds under Section 701
Federal Aid Highway Act 1956 created interstate highway system
"Image of the City" 1960 defined basic elements of a city's "imageability" Kevin Lynch
"The Death and Life of Great American Cities" 1961 critique of planners and planning profession Jane Jacobs
1st State to Institute Statewide Zoning 1961 Hawaii
"Silent Spring" 1962 deleterious effects of pesticides on animal, plant and human life Rachel Carson
"The Urban General Plan" 1964 T.J. Kent
Civil Rights Act 1964 outlaws discrimination based on race, creed, and national origin in public places
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Created 1965 Robert Weaver - 1st secretary and 1st African-American cabinet member
Water Resources Management Act 1965 authorizes federal, multi-state river basin commissions
National Historic Preservation Act 1966 established National Register provides through Section 106 for the protection of preservation worthy sites and properties threatened by federal activities directs each state to appoint a SHPO
"Design with Nature" 1969 ties planning to natural environment Ian McHarg
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1969 requires an environmental impact statement for every federal or federally aided state or local action that might harm environment
1st Earth Day January 1, 1970
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Established & Purpose 1970 administer provisions of Clean Air Act (1970)
American Institute of Planners (AIP) Adopts Code of Ethics for Planners 1971
Endangered Species Act 1973 authorized federal assistance to establish conservation programs for endangered plant and animal species
Housing and Community Development Act 1974 replaces categorical grant with block grant
1st Exam for AIP Membership 1977
AIP and ASPO become American Planning Association (APA) 1978
Superfund Bill 1980 creates liability for discharging hazardous waste into environment taxes polluting industries to establish fund for cleanup of polluted sites
Seaside, FL Construction Begins 1984 earliest example of New Urbanism
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) 1991 provisions for National Scenic Byway Program transportation enhancements both include historic preservation component
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Begins 1994 fosters trade and investment between Canada, US, and Mexico by removing or lowering non-tariff and tariff barriers
American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) Inaugurates Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners (FAICP) 1999 recognizes distinguished individual contributions to planning by longer term AICP members
Clintion Creates 8 New National Monuments 2000 in 5 western states
Created by: hccovi2
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