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Ch 22

The Progressive Era

Name the leading industry in the mass production movement. the automobile industry
Explain how Henry Ford transformed the auto industry. - discovered that a smaller unit of profit on a large number of sales meant enormous revenues - the key was mass production - in 1913 he set up assembly lines which greatly reduced the time and cost of producing cars
Name the industies dominated by trusts from 1898 to 1903. - oil - railroads - utilities - steel - tobacco - copper
Describe the important business developments from 1898 to 1909. - oligopoly (control of a commodity or service by a smaller of large, powerful companies - just 1% of the industrial firms were producing nearly half of all manufactured goods - businesses reached abroad for raw materials and new markets
Discuss the important aspects of mass production in the early 20th century. -size - system - organization - marketing - speed of production
Describe the costs to workers of mass production. - lost control of the work pace - new machines ended demand for skilled workers
List the principles of Frederick Taylor's scientific management. - management must take responsibility for job-related knowledge & classify it into "rules, laws, and formulae," & control the workplace through enforced: standardization of methods, adoption of the best implements & working conditions, & cooperation
Discuss the major aspects of U.S. farm life in the early 20th century. - farmers prospered - greater production & expanding urban markets - rural free delivery; Parcel post (1913) - better roads - land prices rose w/ crop prices - farm tenancy increased (many of them African American)
Explain the conditions faced by working women in 1900. - Low pay - Few held skilled jobs; most held clerical jobs - Had to buy their own equipment such as needles, thread, and pay for electricity and chairs to sit on - Were expected to resign when married
Name the leader of the Niagara Movement. - W. E. B. DuBois
Explain the main characteristics of immigration to the U.S. 1901-1920. - came mainly from southern & eastern Europe and Mexico to work - labor agents - called padroni - recruited immigrant workers, found them jobs, & deducted a fee from their wages - moved to & from their homelands - often brought their families
Name the major unions and their leaders in the early 20th century U.S. labor movement. - Women's Trade Union League(WTUL)-Marg. Dreier Robins, Anne Morgan, Jane Addams, Mary McDowell, Julia Lathrop, Dr Alice Hamilton - Am Fed. of Labor(AFL)-Sam Gompers - Ind. Workers of/t World(IWW)-Mary Harris Jones, Eliz. Gurley Flynn, Big Bill Haywood
Describe the important demographical characteristics of the U.S. population in 1920. - median age was 25 (now its 35) - increase in life expectancy - average life span increased - infant mortality rate remained high - cities adopted zoning ordinances
List the important leisure activities of the early 1900's. - baseball - football - movie theaters - phonographs - dancing at night-clubs, restaurants, and hotels - Vaudeville - fiction reading
Describe the important changes in the traditional arts in the early 1900's. - move from ballet dance to modern dance (Isadora Duncan & Ruth St. Denis) - Realist painters: paint life as it really was - Modern art (post impressionists): bold colors, depictions of modern life - Focus on meters (modern poetry)
Created by: hollyannf08