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PCB 3063

Exam 3

Coupling Conformation linked heterozygous gene pairs in the arrangement AB | | ab; most of the progeny will be either wild type for both genes or mutant for both genes
Repulsion Conformation linked heterozygous gene pairs in the arrangement of Ab | | aB; most of the progeny will be mutant for only one gene and wild type for the other
A 1:1:1:1 frequency generally means independent assortment.
A 4:4:1:1 frequency generally means linkage
Evolutionary Significance of Crossing Over Insures the genetic variability upon which natural selection acts; Other factors influencing genetic variability are: Mutation and Independent Assortment
Fertility (F) factor small circular self-replicating DNA element with ~100 genes called plasmid; F+ cells produce pili allowing them to attach to F- cells that lack pili; F may integrate itself into bacterial chromosome, making the cell Hfr (high frequency recombination).
Sexduction sexual transmission of donor E. coli chromosomal genes on the fertility factor.
F+ x F- Two F+
Hfr x F- One Hfr and one F-; rarely, the F- may become F+ if the entire Hfr chromosome is transferred during conjugation
F' x F- Two F'
Karyotype A matched array of chromosomes. The homologous pairs are sequenced; does not occur like this in the cell
Metacentric chromosomes centromere 50% up the sister chromatids
Submetacentric chromosomes centromere 75% up the sister chromatids
Acrocentric chromosomes centromere 90% up the sister chromatids
Telocentric chromosomes centromere 100% up the sister chromatids
Types of Chromosmal Mutations Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, and Translocation
Pseudodominance phenotypic expression of recessive gene with deletion on homologous chromosome (when you’re Cc and the C gets deleted, you’re now dominant for c)
Pseudogenes “junk DNA”, produced by duplications, may lead to new functions, evolution
Transformation Bacteria lysed, DNA breaks up, other bacteria can take up and integrate into chromosome
Transduction Bacteriophage makes bacteria enter lytic cycle, make new viral proteins that may take bacterial DNA instead and insert into other bacteria
Aneuploidy wrong number of chromosomes
Robertsonian translocation when part of number 21 sticks to a large part of number 14
Down's Syndrome Most common autosomal aneuploidy; 92% due to trisomy w/ full chromosome 21; 4% due to Robertsonian translocation; Can arise from maternal or paternal lines
Translocation carriers are phenotypically normal but genotypically not normal
Genotypically normal x Translocation Carrier (Down Syndrome Ratio) 1/2 die; 1/3 genotypically normal, 1/3 Down's Syndrome, and 1/3 translocation carriers
Any deletion of chromosomes 1,2,3,4 dead embryo
percentage of spontaneous abortions are due to chromosomal abnormalities 15-20%
Nulisomy loss of both members of homologous pair
Monosomy loss of a single chromosome
Trisomy Gain of a single chromosome
Tetrasomy gain of two homologs
Uniparental disomy when you get two homologs from one parent
Factors that can disrupt equilibrium mutation, natural selection, random genetic drift, migration, and meiotic drive (one allele recovered more frequently than other).
CCR5 mutation can cause a faulty cell membrane coreceptor that allows the HIV virus to attach to the cell but not to inject it’s genetic material; caused by a deletion of 32 bp on the homozygous chromosomes; makes your WBCs resistant to HIV
linkage strength (uncrossovered/total) OR (parentals/total)
Autosomal gene frequency p + q = 1
genotypic frequency p2 + 2pq + q2=1
Created by: JacobGant