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Architect Midterm 3
Ch.11 Greeks, Ch. 12 Romans, Ch.3 Firmeness, and Aegean Sea
|Where is the architrave ?
|It is on the bottom most part of the entablature on the column. It is above the capital
|Where is the cornice?
|The roof underneath the pediment on a column
|excellence, Greeks strive to achieve this
|Miletos was rebuilt on ______ plan after _______ destroyed the city
|Grid plan and Persians
|What was the most important greek secular building according to roth
|stoas -they lined and came to define the agoras (marketplace) long rectangular buildings open on one side
|what are the basic parts of the greek theater
|theatron, orchestra, skene
|What does Roth describe Erechtheum as? why?
|"a jewel box" of delicate refinement through despair and darkness.
|betterments. referring to the subtle visual refinements of the parthenon
|what is bouleuterion used for
|civic council house in asia minor
|What did the Greeks succeed in
|Who is the main persian leader that fought in wars against Greek city-states
|Darius and Xerxes
|What are romans best at?
|T or F The romans were speculative and idealistic
|False, they were pragmatic and realistic
|what is an oculus
|the eye or sun roof at the top of the dome
|what is a coffer
|square indentation on the dome
|Temple of Fortuna that I talked about in class is a clear illustration of what?
|rule of the axis
|a kind of street that runs north and south in the military encampment in timgad, algeria
|What was the novel Roman interest represented by Nero
|The natural landscape
|what was the romans principal innovation in 70s AD
|combine 2 theaters to make an amphitheater
|What is the purpose of the basilica?
|hold legal proceedings
|what was the largest basilica in rome
|Who is the architect of two apartment towers in chicago and also wrote the epigraph of ch. 3
|Mies Van Der Rohe
|Where is the triglyph
|located in the uppermost portion of the entablature on a doric order metope is next to it
|what is the voussoir
|the wooden or stone pieces that make up the arch
|what is a spandrel
|the bricks or stone that are in between two arches
|what are the two great advantages that the arch has over the lintel
|1. can span much greater distances 2. made up of smaller parts (voussoirs) so that you dont have to find a huge stone
|what is a truss? what is the basis of its strength
|straight wood pieces arranged in triangle shapes to be used in constructing buildings.Triangle
|aggregate they put in concrete
|how does structure influence cultural expression in a building like gothic cathedral
|the high pointed arches express the hope of heaven
|where does the name minoan come from
|name of a legendary king - minos
|who overpowered the Mycenaeans, what did they bring?
|Dorians, brought male sky gods to Greece like Zeus
|why did the greek city-states create colonies
|they were responding to poor agricultural conditions at home
|What kind of writing did Minoans leave behind? what island? what information did we learn about them
|Linear B on Crete- not much because they only left grocery lists, very early form of Greek
|where is the peloponese? cyclades?
|in greece. peloponese is to left looks like a hand and cyclades are the small islands floating in the aegean sea
|near east has ________ and temples while Egypt has _____ and temples [thesis]
|Palaces while egypt has tombs
|how was crete protected
|by the med sea
|what was the minoan characteristic building type
|palaces, mycenae has temples
|who did mycenaeans take over
|what was the purpose of palace at knossos
|office building for the bureaucrats, kind of a town, food storage
|what type of plan was the palace at knossos
|maze like labyrinth, minoans did not like regularity, they wanted complexity
|What was palace at knossos made of
|wooden post and lintel to provide flexibility and tension, rubble (unshaped stone) walls, sun dried brick on upper wall, fresco (plaster) in main room
|describe minoan columns at palace of knossos
|thin at bottom and thick at top
|what does the decoration in palace at knossos remind you of? what are the features
|neo-babylonia : Fantastic animal , heraldic arrangement, bands are stretched infinitely
|What material did Mycenaeans use a lot ? how did they use it
|Stone, dressed stone and monumental stone architecture
|Immense stones organized into lion gate. Mycenaean culture. Could have only been put in place by cyclops. Not finely dressed
|How did akropolis palace at tiryns Greece deter invaders?
|Thick defensive walls and ramp to entrance left invaders' right side exposed for attack
|megaron: culture? Purpose? Put together?
|Mycenean. royal events. Porch, vestibule, and hall with hearth in center and throne to one side
|what is the purpose of City walls and Lion Gate in Mycenea Greece?
|more to impress than defensive purposes. uses cyclopean masonry
|what 3 cultures are represented in City walls and Lion gate in Mycenae Greece?
|Egypt - dressed stone. Ancient Near East (Neo-Babylonian) - heraldic treatment. Minoan- columns
|What 3 countries/areas are a part of Minoan culture?
|Crete, Cyclades, peloponnese
|Who is Atreus
|King of Mycenae. Pelops' son who was king of Peloponnese (minoan culture). had the "Treasury of Atreus" which was a tomb really and set in mycenean culture
|ceramics in Minoan culture, pitcher thinly potted, a combination of understatement and exuberance
|Treasury of Atreus has the same purpose as what Prehistoric structure?
|what type of arch is at entrance of treasury of atreus
|describe the columns and decoration on Treasury of Atreus that are now in London museum
|columns are thin at bottom and thick at top like Minoans. they have chevron zig zag pattern with beautiful spirals throughout. Log discs and triglyph decoration as well (not the greek one)
|What does this "New order of the ages" mean?
|1st age of human existence was the best, the golden age. it progressively got worse with more violence and killing in the 4th age or iron age. We want to go back to this golden age
|Greeks concentrated in what 3 places?
|mainland -Greece. Ionia - edge of Turkey (Priene, Miletus, Ephesus) . western greece - Italy, Sicily
|Greeks developed standardized rectangular ______ which they treated as ________. what does this mean? [thesis]
|temples which they treated as solids (like statues). idea that all parts of building should be beautiful
|Greeks gave us how many orders? what are they? [thesis]
|3 kinds, one plain top - doric and 2 curly tops - ionic and corinthian
|Greeks carried _______ to peak of refinement, but constantly hit troubles at the __________ [thesis]
|temples but hit problems at the corners
|Greeks developed principal of _______ seating for _________ [thesis]
|concentric seating for council halls and theaters
|developed ___________from Egyptians and passed on to other cultures [thesis]
|what is a metope, what happens in it?
|Greek part of the entablature on the doric column, next to triglyph. focus is on human figure and relief sculptures of humans
|what subject dominates Greek art?
|Greek architecture is architecture of ________ while roman architecture is of _________
|Greek-solids. Romans -Spaces
|Liberty (who should we thank for it)`
|Greeks invented what idea to reason out the universe
|what do Greeks call themselves? what are non-greeks called?
|Hellenes. non greeks are barbarians
|Why did Greeks have trouble banding together prior to their official start?
|too much fighting, could not achieve peace. it is easier to take wealth away from people than to make it yourself *heart of the problem
|temple in antis
|columns are between 2 walls or antas
|columns are in front of temple
|columns are in front of and in back of temple
|colonnade running all the way around temple ex. parthenon
|distyle, tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle
|distyle: 2 columns across front - antis. tetrastyle: 4 columns -prostyle, amphiprostyle. hexastyle: 6 columns-peripteral. octastyle - 8 columns
|what is the greek way of categorizing temples? name them.
|by how many columns they have across front. Distyle, tetrastyle. hexastyle. octastyle
|naos or cella
|inner room, basic ingredient of a greek temple
|what is the basic parts of a Greek order
|post and beam
|what are 3 parts of post? [greek column]
|Base, shaft, capital
|what are 3 parts of the beam? [greek column]
|top is cornice, frieze (decorative band), architrave (bottommost of 3 elements)
|why could the doric order not be perfected?
|because of triglyph at corners
|Artemis (goddess of what?)
|virgin goddess, goddess of child birth, wild animals, hunting
|Describe how temple of artemis is put together
|peripteral style temple. oriented so that god looked out front door to east. naos or cella
|What are the 3 rules of Doric order in order to not fail at corners
|1. triglyphs was supposed to be centered over columns to be evenly spaced 2. metopes supposed to be square 3. corners should be strong (end w/ triglyph)
|what is the classic problem in the pediments on greek orders?
|how to fill the pediment with sculpture
|describe the sculpture in the pediment of temple of artemis
|medusa in center, panthers on sides, winged horse, scenes of figures on different scales killing each other. not a very sophisticated way to solve problem of filling pediments
|what is the purpose of entasis?
|anthropomorphic architecture - like a human when you carry a heavy weight you have a little give , slump
|what gives the reflected light and shadows on the column
|what are the 3 purposes of parthenon
|1. house goddess 2. glorify one of most powerful greek city states 3. function as double vault or strong room (to protect statue of Athena made out of gold and ivory)
|what are the 2 naos' in parthenon
|-room of the maidens (golden treasure) - room with statue of Athena
|what building is the embodiment of excellence in Greek architecture?
|4 kinds of refinement in Greek parthenon (very subtle)
|1. curvature (no straight lines on building) 2. entasis (ability to carry a load) 3. tilt 4. corner columns (thicker than the rest at corners)
|What building solved the classic problem of sculpture in the pediments
|what 4 things should I remember about parthenon (features, purpose, type of temple, effect on greeks, effect on arts)
|1. filed with unprecedented features: temple was richly adorned, honor athena and city 2. peripteral temple peak of trabeated architecture 3. summit of greek human centered art 4. peak for uniting architecture and sculpture
|purpose of erectheion
|temple to hold half a dozen gods, multipurpose
|describe column base at erectheum
|convex on bottom, concave over top of that
|what did they substitute columns for at erectheum?
|female figures called caryatids
|purpose of bouleuterion
|architecture of democracy, government building, council chamber to have meetings
|purpose of theater at epidaurus? how was it made?
|rituals of dionysis, architectuer of drama. cut from a hill
|What did Greeks get from Egyptians
|grid plan, depicting humans in sculpture, building in stone
|what is the greek trait or theme?
|Take an idea and perfect it
|what is the design of city of miletus and priene in Turkey
|Etruscans use what 4 architectural elements that have lasted? [thesis]
|1. they united orders with arches 2. developed the atrium 3. a one story courtyard 3. built deep porticos on temples 4. develop tuscan order
|purpose of porta algusta (culture,
|etruscan, ceremonial entrance to powerful city. True arch that married the orders
|honorific arch vs. triumphal arch
|large arch in roman architecture that belongs to higher class. triumphal arch is smaller arches next to honorific for sub class. from etruscans to romans
|What is the design of an etruscan temple?
|axially designed, deep portico approached only from front. go in to see 3 cellas or holy chambers
|describe tuscan order
|base is one big, muscular convex molding. very robust top gable is overhung very far
|what building had greater influence on political social and architectural events in rome than any other building? [etruscan]
|temple of Jupiter Capitolinus
|Purpose of temple of jupiter capitolinus
|house gods -jupiter, mannerva, and juno. political building for govt decisions
|roman architecture is architecture of what?
|even though Romans borrowed a lot from greeks and etruscans they still did what?
|transformed what they borrowed
|romans are masters of what design? [thesis]
|Axially designed, everything symmetrical
|romans made the revolutionary union of _____ and ______. It is the roman revolution in structure [thesis]
|concrete and arch
|what are 2 ingredients to make concrete?
|cement and aggregate or stickum and stuffing
|east and west streets in grid plan of military encampment
|what did etruscans give to romans?
|-marriage of arch and column -honorific arch -temple of Jupiter-deep portico on temple
|what type of plan is pompeii on?
|irregular streets, not a grid plan
|Purpose of basilica? why is it significant [thesis]
|legal proceedings, most useful building type whose origins lie in Egypt
|what is the simple system to understand roman wall decoration?
|4 phases and 2 patterns. 1. from simple to complex 2. from closed to open and back again
|what are the 4 styles of roman fresco or decoration
|1. plaster painted to look like marble (fake using contact paper) 2. using perspective in wall painting 3. painting of a painting, (flat) 4. mix of all, imitation marble, flat wall w/ paintings of painting and use of perspective
|Romans took over what from Etruscans? [thesis]
|marriage of arch and orders
|triclinium., where can i find it?
|3 couches. seen in house of drinking contest. room for entertaining
|rightness. Vitruvius' term. subject matter matches function of the room (form follows function)
|what is the floor mosaic from the house of the drinking contest made of
|tesserae or little stone chips and smalt- little pieces of glass
|where can we see an example of decor
|house of the drinking contest, murals on floor match function of the room
|floor mosaic of the 4 seasons main ideas (relationship to greeks, painting, world, and what vocab word does it exemplify)
|-durable equivalent to painting - very Greek because it focuses on figure not space - this worldly -decor (content and decoration match room)
|What are the main ideas or legacies of the general treatise on architecture , who wrote it?
|Vitruvius, architecture is a liberal art ( unlike sculpture or painting because those can be done by slaves) architects need book learning not just craft
|what does vitruvius say a thing has to have in order to be architecture
|commoditas (function), firmitas (firmness), venustas (beauty)
|difference between greek and roman in how they constructed their theaters?
|roman created man made hills using arch construction. greeks sculpted theaters from natural landscaped hills
|what building complex gives us great insight into roman greatness of architecture? [thesis]
|in Trajan's forum, roman spatial gift was layout of what? [thesis]
|where do wee roman spatial gift of vertical curves (arches)? [thesis]
|up the hill in Trajan's markets
|in Forum of Trajan we see many of the most basic building types like what? [thesis]
|Pantheon is pure _____ and rich _____ [thesis]
|pure form (column under a sphere) and rich decoration
|pantheon had what 2 kinds of richness or lavishness? [thesis]
|1. Materials- obvious, monolithis and sheets of stone are expensive 2. lavishness of space-large dome
|baths were roman lab for experimenting with what? [thesis]
|architecture on a grand scale