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Architect Midterm 2
Ch.10 Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ancient Near East and Ch.2 Commodite (Function)
|Roth says the word function is too limited and we need other words to describe different kinds of function. what are those 2 words?
|circulatory function or acoustical function
|Who wrote the epigraph saying the 3 fundamental elements of architecture
|The opera house in Paris by Charles Garnier describes what kind of function?
|circulatory function - to facilitate and accommodate movement throughout the space
|architecture is more than functional utility. what does Roth say it is?
|the vessel that inescapably shapes human life
|The geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia are very different. what is the main difference
|The Nile is predictable every year and the Tigris/Euphrates Rives is unpredictable
|Mesopotamians used what distinctive building material
|Bitumen or asphalt
|the most important legacy of Mesopotamia is what?
|concepts of civil life and the rule of law
|even when Mesopotamian buildings were sponsored by kings they still embodied what?
|public communal purpose
|what did Egyptians call their river?
|a word meaning black
|to the Egyptians, things were never as good as they were at what time?
|the time of Creation
|What did King Menes do?
|unite upper and lower Egypt. he is not the founder of the Old Kingdom however
|what are the seasons of Egypt?
|Inundation, emergence of the fields from the water, and drought
|what distinguishes Egyptian architecture over the years
|the deliberate resistance to change
|Who built the Great Pyramids at Giza
|when were the great pyramids plundered
|by the time of the Middle Kingdom
|Egyptian Temples were more than places of worship what other purpose did they serve?
|home and training grounds for administration that ran Egypt.
|who designed Temple of Hatshepsut?
|what unique item did temple of hatshepsut have in it that she got from land of punt
|Describe plan of artisan house at Deir el Medina
|reception room w/ shrine of household god Bes-main room w/ palm tree-small bedroom- kitchen-cellar
|Basic elements of architectural design
|Utility, Firmness, Beauty
|2nd fundamental triad of architecture
|Client, architect, builders
|Definition of function
|pragmatic utility of an object
|beauty automatically results from what?
|all purpose space
|a building can be used as anything
|every room has a distinct purpose
|space should facilitate movement easily through the space
|the buildings appearance should follow its function
|how does one achieve symbolic function
|invent original forms, devise appropriate new symbolic representations for the functions that the structure houses
|psychological and physiological functions
|designing based on a feeling you want building or room to have
|where is the first place people began raising their food
|Ancient Near east
|what major things were invented in ancient near east?
|the wheel, money, writing
|What are the 4 locations of the ancient near east
|Palestine (Israel), Anatolia (Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia (iran)
|What is the fertile crescent
|Top of Nile through Mediterranean sea down to bottom of Tigris and Euphrates river
|What civilizations are northern mesopotamia
|what civilizations are in southern mesopotamia
|2 major natural resources in southern mesopotamia
|mud and asphalt or bitumen
|what building materials are found in mesopotamia
|mud, bitumen, fired brick, sun dried brick
|what material are the walls of Babylon made of?
|what are the 2 special qualities of fired brick that stone does not have
|prefabricate it - make it beforehand. lighter than stone.
|What 4 great cities arose in Ancient world? what do they have in common
|Mesopotamia. Egypt. China. Pakistan and India. All arose on rivers
|What are the 8 collectibles that we want to see throughout ancient near east buildings
|1.city 2.wall 3.fired brick 4.4 sided building 5.portal with 2 towers and an arch 6.guardian animals 7.temple 8.palace
|purpose of ziggurat
|elevate temple to provide a link between human realm and heavenly realm of the gods
|what writing form did sumerians develop
|what civilization overran sumerians
|what was most significant change of akkadian period
|toward a strong priestly class and rule by a single warrior king
|during which civilization did ziggurat construction expand
|what is the statue of Gudea holding , why is it relevant?
|a plaque with the inscribed plan of a building. comparing it to Zigguat of Nannar, did not weather away because it had thick outer walls
|who was neo-babylonia restored by and what civilization took over
|Nebuchadnezzar II and took over Assyrians
|describe Hanging gardens, what culture is it from?
|Neo-Babylonia. ziggurat like arched structure supporting terraces heavily planted with trees. water plants using euphrates river. made with fired brick and bitumen
|What is the influence of ancient Mesopotamian cultures
|concepts of civil life and rule of law. writing, wheel, tragic poignancy of human existence.
|Sumerians invented what cultural patterns that have lasted thousands of years? [thesis]
|architectural patterns, writing (cuneiform), cities, ziggurat, wheeled vehicle
|What is the 2nd historical pattern and change made by Sumerians?
|change from city-states governed by temples to empires in the hands of a ruler who claimed divine power aka Divine Right of Kings
|what civilization do we usually compare Mesopotamia with
|where is the birthplace of fired brick
|What year was Sumerians in power? Semites?
|Sumerian: 3500 BC-2000 BC. Semites: 2000 BC-500 BC
|what are the parts of the Ziggurat of Uranamu
|ziggurat. courtyard. broad room plan (babylonian plan)
|What is a broad room plan or babylonian plan
|walk in wide space and straight ahead is throne
|law code of Hammurabi was written using what? what civilization
|cuneiform. Babylon. received his power from the gods
|In Israel and Judah how many temples were there and which one was the greatest? [thesis]
|3 temples, 1st one was greatest
|What is the vast impact of the Hebrews based on? [thesis]
|Ideas and thoughts, not buildings nor artifacts
|First Temple (who built it, what is it used for, where is it, date)
|King Solomon, major Hebrew shrine-symbol of major Jewish culture, Jerusalem Israel, M10C BC
|What were the 2 columns called on the front of King Solomon's first temple?
|Boaz (means in its strength) and Jaken (means he shall establish)
|Where can we see a description of King Solomon's temple?
|Holy Bible, Kings 6-7
|Who are semites?
|Arabic or Hebrew people. came after Sumerians. the Akkadians, Hittites, Babylonians
|what are keruvims? where can they be found
|Fantastic winged creatures found on King Solomon's temple 1
|what civilization does King Sargon II belong to?
|Where is King Sargon's Palace located?
|Located in Dur-Sharrukin, Khorsabad, Iraq
|what is palace of king sargon used for?
|government office building. ziggurat is on side of it so that religion enforces king's power
|what civilization does King Solomon belong to?
|Israel and Judah
|Assyrian Arch that is resting on Lamasus or good demon. comes from Hittite Empire -Lion Gate at Hattusas, Turkey
|Assyrian. good demon, human headed bulls or lions. put monsters on doorways to ward off evil
|Plaque of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, Iraq shows an example of what?
|Dining while reclining.
|Nebuchadnezzar is a part of what civilization?
|Describe streets of Babylon inside Ishtar gate
|Urban design, wide straight roads, Euphrates river travels through area
|what is Mushshushu, where is it located?
|furious serpent decorated on walls of Babylon on Temple of Marduk
|3 basic patterns on Babylon walls
|1. representations of Real animals and monsters 2. Heraldic symmetry (face to face, butt to butt) 3. infinite stretchability
|Darius and Xerxes are rulers of what civilization?
|twice in the near east we see nomadic people quickly turn into what? what 2 civilizations [thesis]
|Thriving civilization, suddenly created an empire and achieve monumental architecture. Persians and 7th c Islamic architecture
|what is persepolis
|city of Persia, Iran. capital city
|The winged bulls carved on stone in Persian empire were inspired by who? what is the difference between the two?
|Assyrians, except persians had 4 legs and assyrians had 5 legs
|What 2 architectural elements are uniquely Persian?
|Hall of 100 columns and post and lintel construction with bulls heads atop facing away from each other
|What direction does Nile flow
|south to north
|2 great determinants of Egyptian culture
|Nile and the Sun
|What kind of materials do Egyptians have
|rich in natural resources and every kind of mineral. colorful stones
|why were egyptians rarely invaded? what impact did that have?
|protected on east and west by desert. people were very secure and prosperous, they believed in life after death
|What side of the Nile did Egyptians live? bury the dead? [thesis]
|our spiritual twin. separate from us in life, at death Ka would be reunited with the body to survive. Needed food and drink and a statue to survive
|occurs when Ka reunites with the body. leaves the tomb and travels by day. at night returns to body
|lived in the sky (realm of the gods)
|All Egyptian tombs have what?
|underground burial chamber, on top could be a superstructure to protect corpse
|what are the 2 functions of egyptian tombs [thesis]
|protect the body, make a way for spirit to get offerings
|what does mastaba mean
|arab word for bench
|purpose of mastaba
|served to protect the body and make a way for spirit to get offerings
|place where Ka statue is located
|What is on the relief picture at the Tomb of Ti and Nefer-Hetep-Es
|Ti going hippo hunting on the Nile. hippos are very dangerous. made out of papyrus
|where does the Ka go to get nourishment
|False doors, can give literal food, a list of food, or an image like on Ti's tomb
|3 basic kinds of rock
|Igneous-granite, disintegrate into sediments, Sedimentary-limestone, fragile can be pressurized into marble, Metamorphic-marble
|Pyramid of Zoser emerged from what? [thesis]
|mastaba, 1st egyptian pyramid to grow from mastaba
|what architectural structure marks the turning point towards fine architecture? [thesis]
|Stepped Pyramid of Zoser
|architect of stepped pyramid of zoser
|Stepped pyramid of zoser marks turning point of what? [hint: materials]
|soft materials--> hard materials
|what is heb-sed
|one man olympic ceremony to prove that Zoser could continue to rule. located on right side of Stepped pyramid of zoser
|what are the 5 features of old kingdom pyramid
|1.pyramid 2.walled courtyard 3. temple at eastern base of pyramid 4. causeway 5. valley temple-body of king is deposited here before taken to tomb
|Pyramids of Giza- 3 kings
|Khufu, Khafre, Menkare
|what materials was on the tip of the pyramids of giza
|limestone and sometimes gold
|which pyramid at Giza was capped with gold
|What alteration did they make to the inside of Khufu's pyramid?
|raised burial chamber 3x so it is now in the middle of the pyramid. Ba can now move about in the day
|What are the comparisons of the american dollar to pyramids of giza and egypt in general
|the eye symbolizes that God is looking down on us favorably-divine right of kings. also illuminates in the light just like the gold tip of Khufu's pyramid
|what is purpose of the great sphinx of giza
|guard city of the dead -necropolis
|what replaced mastabas in middle kingdom of Egypt ? [thesis]
|rock cut tombs
|What temple is the most sophisticated achievement of Egyptian architecture [thesis]
|Temple of Hatsepshut
|What do you see on plaster cast from part of a wall on temple of hatshepsut
|see Hatsepshut's journey to Land of Punt, carrying myrrh trees back to her temple