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Architect Midterm 1
Course in Brief (lecture 1) and Ch. 9 Prehistory
|90 percent rule
|If we are not writing while we listen only 10% of information is remembered
|what is the most basic definition of architecture
|architecture is a variety of boxes that people put themselves in
|prehistory is the golden age of what?
|what is the trajectory of the shape of buildings through history
|from round buildings to rectangular buildings
|another name for post construction
|Earthfast or post and lintel
|what is the orientation of the White Temple of Uruk
|corners facing NSEW
|what type of temple is white temple of uruk
|what is white temple of uruk made of?
|sun-dried brick aka mud brick aka adobe
|what is Ziggurat of Uranammu made of? why is it significant?
|Fired brick, ziggurat is first major building using hard material
|what is the orientation of Funerary complex of Zoser?
|sides face NSEW, axial layout
|Funerary complex of Zoser architect
|what is Funerary complex of Zoser made of?
|Free stone- stone that can be worked with a tool that can be moved in any direction (chisel)
|What did funerary complex of zoser evolve from?
|Mastaba -sun dried clay tomb. stack 6 mastabas on each other
|What are Greeks masters in?
|what is purpose of Parthenon in Greece?
|house goddess Athena
|Ictinus, Callicrates, and Phidias
|what is purpose of Baths of Caracalla? what culture?
|Romans. civic center to regenerate body and spirit
|What are Romans masters in?
|scenic and sculptural spaces and axial design
|Trabeated vs. arcuated
|trabeated- post and beam. arcuated- arches
|What material is Roman's specialty
|describe shape of Old St Peters in Early Christian period
|center aisle and 2 side aisles. Basilica and longitudinal space
|what is purpose of Old St Peters
|shrine over a tomb
|what is compromise or compound plan
|mix of central and longitudinal spaces
|What type of plan does Hagia Sophia have?
|Compound plan - long space with domes
|what kind of setting does the interior of the Byzantine church, Hagia Sophia, create?
|otherworldly and heavenly
|what type of plan does Cathedral of Chartres have?
|Compromise or compound plan
|what direction is the priest oriented in the Gothic Cathedral of Chartres?
|what is the structure of Chartres?
|skeletal-nothing solid lots of stained glass
|what are the 4 big lessons he talked about in lecture 1?
|1. there's no such thing as progress in the arts 2. there's no reason to think human nature has changed 3. continuity is a major law in architecture 4. building and architecture teach us imagination and self-discipline
|drawing of a building receding into space
|floor plan, flat shapes
|view of a building seen from one side
|drawing that lets us see the interior without perspective
|more specific sections of building. plan or elevation of part of a building
|what is the purpose of this course?
|walk away with a story of western architecture in your head. balance of big ideas and details
|Dr. Roth's education
|BA: bachelor of architecture at U of Illinois 1966 Ph.D in architectural history at Yale 1973.
|what does Ph.D mean
|Doctor means one who teaches, philosophy means love of wisdom. so Love of teaching
|Where has Roth taught? and how long?
|Professor of Architectural History Emeritus at University of Oregon for 40 years
|what did Roth write his discertation on?
|Mckim, Mead and White
|What subject is Roth weakest at? strongest?
|Ancient Near East (weakest) American and modern subjects (strongest)
|What is the organization of our textbook based on?
|began as outline for a television show in 1977 by community college students
|what are publication dates of textbook
|1993, 2006, 2014
|when did the kind of plan that we see at Old St. Peters in Rome become internationally popular in the Western world?
|starting 500 years after construction of Old St. Peter's
|in the Greek tradition, an order consists of what basic structure?
|Post and beam
|what is the schedule for the baths of caracalla?
|men use them in afternoon, women in the morning
|True or False: We call much of prehistory the stone age. almost all the architecture was made entirely of stone
|In the epigraph, who does Lewis Mumford say was the first to have a permanent dwelling? what was the dwelling?
|the Dead, a cave. and the necropolis or final cemetery
|architecture is more than shelter, what is it ?
|Symbol and form of communication
|What is the order of evolution of humans?
|Australopithecus anamensis (Lucy skeleton). Australopithecus africanus (symbolic thought and self awareness). Homo Habilis (handy man). Homo erectus (bipedal. Homo Heidelbergensis (european cousins)
|what does Terra Amata mean in latin?
|who dwelled in Terra Amata?
|what is terra amata made out of?
|branches, piled rocks, posts
|What does Terra amata suggest about civilization?
|Homo Erectus had a regular hunting cycle. Hearth fire suggests gathering of group and a community
|what kind of building was the parent of other kinds?
|who is the first architect whose name we know?
|Imhotep -stepped pyramid of zoser
|who were the neanderthals?
|Our most detailed understanding of how a neolithic city functions is what?
|what do the neanderthal burial residues imply?
|they had a social structure, valued the old and infirm
|What structure did Neanderthals live in?
|caves, there is no evidence of built structures
|who were neanderthals replaced with
|Homo sapiens sapiens or cro-magnon people
|describe cro-magnon dwelling. where is it?
|dome shaped house covered with hides and mammoth bones piled around perimeter. Ukraine
|what is the most compelling evidence of cro-magnon intellectual capacity
|painting and sculpture they created. became aware of a cycle of life
|why did cro-magnons paint on cave walls?
|noone is sure. fertility or initiation rites. images of hunting magic. spiritual images. promote the animals that were disappearing from the earth.
|how did dwellings at Monte Verde stay preserved so long?
|layer of peat that had sealed off oxygen and preserved the wood and leather remains
|what is monte verde dwellings made of ?
|base timber portions, mammoth hide covers. wood stakes and fiber cordage
|when was upper paleolithic ?
|40,000 BC- 8000 BC
|what is the Gobekeli Tepe used for?
|a temple, used T shaped stones
|means great stone
|what does Ggantija mean? what is it used for? where is it? when is it?
|means Gigantic. religious centers, temple complex, houses over 7000 dead. at islands of Malta in Med sea. during neolithic period
|dolmens (what is it? wheres it found? hows it put together)
|table stones, roofed tomb structures used in Neolithic period consisted of 3 vertical stone slabs supporting massive horizontal slab. found at Lanyon Quoit, Cornwall England. for burial chambers
|Describe what strange occurrence happens at New Grange tomb
|at the rise of the winter solstice the light enters the passage grave and hits the back of the tomb for 21 minutes
|what is a corbeled vault, where can we find an example of one?
|stones stacked over one another to create an upside down V. at new grange tomb near Dublin
|what is the best known prehistoric megalithic construction?
|what was the effect of new grange tomb on the winter solstice
|channel of communication between living outside and dead within
|what are the four phases of Stonehenge?
|1. Earthhenge-trench dug to mark out the area 2. timberhenge- erect wood 3.bluestonehenge-blue stone uprights erected inside the circle, dragged from Wales to Wiltshire 4. stonehenge-blue stones taken out, sarens put up and trilithons in the middle
|2 stone uprights carrying a lintel., used to make stonehenge
|stone uprights, used to make stonehenge
|what was stonehenge used for?
|astronomical observations, mark phases and eclipses of the moon. expression of identity. gathering place where cycle of sun and life was celebrated
|What is skara brae and why is it significant?
|a village in Orkney Islands off of Scotland. It was made entirely of stone unlike most dwellings made of wood and thatch.
|What happened in "Neolithic Revolution"
|agriculture developed in Fertile crescent. stone tools replaced by small tools of volcanic glass (obsidian). more fixed settlements. cities grow in size. social organization became more complex
|what is the earliest known city built in neolithic period?
|Chatal Huyuk in modern day Turkey
|what did people trade at Chatal Huyuk? what was their main source of food?
|traded obsidian to fertile crescent. farming community
|describe the way Chatal Huyuk community looked
|houses packed tightly together, no streets, enter the house through the roof. made out timber frames filled with mud brick
|What spurred the move from Africa to Asia and Europe?
|bipedalism. developed techniques for hunting and had mastered the control of fire.
|What made the need for finding shelter urgent?
|the move to Asia and Europe. and the ice ages
|What helped neolithic people fashion more permanent structures for ceremonial purposes and ritual celebrations?
|growing division and specialization of labor. more complex and centralized social organizations
|What are the 2 turning points in Upper Paleolithic period? what changed? (thesis)
|1. Biological: our kind became dominant over Neanderthals 2. Behavioral: became more organized hunters, specialization in what they hunted, made camps and predicted migration of animals
|What was found in caves at Lascaux, France? what does it suggest?
|Paintings on walls of animals. they had bigger settlements, more food, and round buildings of houses
|what is the basic construction of terra amata?
|What are the two kinds of prehistoric construction that has lasted into today? [thesis]
|vertical and horizontal log construction
|driving a post into the ground. post construction
|where can I find an example of horizontal log construction?
|vilage at Lake Biskupin, Poland.
|what are positives and negatives of horizontal log construction?
|+: made it possible to settle countless areas. -:cannot produce walls for many windows
|What is the great shift in architecture when dealing with the dead? [thesis]
|Passage graves oriented on winter sun --> circles oriented on summer sun
|What is a constant architectural theme of Neolithic period? why?
|special places for the dead because 1. bodies accumulate, 2. you want things from the dead, 3. keep dead away from living
|what are the 3 parts of a passage grave
|1. passage- post and beam construction 2.chamber-corbel dome arch 3.mound of earth heaped over
|What are the 3 great passage graves in Ireland?
|Dowth, Knowth, New Grange (most popular)
|describe the decoration in front of new grange
|spirals on a stone covering door that lets a little light in
|What is significant about Isles of Orkney? Where is it?
|Islands right above Scotland. epicenter of Scotland in neolithic period. tells story of the human race. home to farmers and fisherman. fertile land. had passage graves similar to new grange.
|What are 3 other circular structures other than stonehenge?
|Barnhouse, Stenness, Ring of Brodgar
|round ditch inside a bank of dirt. you dont need stone to have a henge
|every inhabited area in neolithic Britain had what?
|What were passage graves replaced by?
|what was stenness used for? which way was it oriented?
|burial rituals. oriented on summer solstice
|What is Ring of Brodgar?
|Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland
|What is Avebury?
|Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, England. largest of stone circles
|stone uprights. sandstoned boulders found lying on ground not shaped at all.
|bank and ditch or henge, inside lies 6 rings og wooden posts, place for public meetings
|What are the 6 characteristics of Stonehenge [thesis]
|1. unique 2.end of the line for stone circles in Britain 3. evolves from 11 phases (we only need to know 4) 4.simple relation to sun 5. built using technology of woodworking 6. incorporates refinements called entasis
|what is the axis aligned with on stonehenge
|aligned with rising sun on a midsummer day
|Trilithon is made by what woodworking technique?
|mortise and tenon joint. has little bit of curve on stone too.