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Ch. 21

Toward Empire

Explain why Americans became interested in an overseas empire in the late 19th century. - The end of the frontier sparked fears of diminishing opportunities at home - farmers and industrialists needed to sell extra goods - economic growth
Discuss the tenets of Social Darwinism espoused by Josiah Strong. - civilize the world under Anglo-Saxon races - convert everyone to Christianity world-wide - God favored Anglo-Saxons
Describe the basic goals of 19th century American foreign policy. - international trade - annex Canada or Mexico (Monroe Doctrine) - Pan-American unity against nations of the Old World - coveted Hawaii and other outposts on the sea-lanes to China
List the foreign policy goals of William H. Seward. - American empire stretching south into Latin America and west to the shores of Asia - including Canada and Mexico; islands in the Caribbean as strategic bases to protect a canal across the isthmus; and Hawaii and other islands as stepping stones to Asia
Explain U.S. foreign policy towards Latin America from 1869 to 1896. - Pan-Americanism (union of all nations of North, Central, & South Am) & tariff reciprocity - diverted Latin Am trade from Europe to the US thro a series of reciprocity treaties - US supported & defended Venezuela against GBrit w/ the Monroe Doctrine
Discuss the U.S. relationship with Hawaii in the 19th century. - 1875: reciprocity treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar duty free entry to the US & bound Hawaii to only trade w/ the US
Explain why Americans favored the annexation of Hawaii. - its strategic location; wanted it as a military base - fear of other nations, like Japan, annexing it - US depended on its sugar - feelings among Americans that the nation had a responsibility to bring Christianity and civilize the islands
List the participants in the dispute over Pago Pago in 1889. - US - Great Britain - Germany
Describe Alfred Thayer Mahan's arguments for a new navy. - industrialism produces surpluses for which markets are needed, markets involve distant ports which require a large merchant marine and a strong navy to protect it at sea - the US must expand its navy if its going to compete in the race for power
List the causes of the Spanish-American War. - Rebellion in Cuba - "Yellow press" whipped up US sentiment to favor Cuban independence - Explosion of the USS Maine - Congress declared Cuba independent and passed "Teller Amendment" (declaration that the US didn't want to annex Cuba)
Describe the types of U.S. troops used in the Spanish-American War. - small regular army - 28,000 - 1 million volunteers (some black) were enlisted in National Guard units that were then integrated into the national army - unprepared soldiers (more experienced in Indian uprisings that fighting large-scale battles
List the major campaigns and ranking officers involved in the Spanish- American War. - Commodore George Dewey - against the Spanish base in the Philippines (Manila Bay campaign) - Teddy Roosevelt - the Cuban campaign - Admiral William T. Sampson - against Admiral Pascual Cervera's main Spanish fleet - Rough Riders - San Juan Hill
Describe the new American empire after the Spanish-American War. - Spain ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the US and allowed Americans to occupy Manila until Spain and the US agree on the Philippines - Spain and the US signed the "Treaty of Paris" (requiring Spain to recognize Cuba's independence, assume the Cuban debt)
Explain the reasons for opposition in the U.S. to overseas empire. - annexing the Philippines violates the American principles of independence and self determination - US will starve to death, fear of cheap labor, debt - didn't want to mix races - practicing tyranny abroad will lead to tyranny at home - lead to war
Discuss John Hay's "Open Door" policy in China. - nats w spheres of influ. in China will respect the privilege & rights of other nats that want to trade in China - nats won't discriminate w/ regard to port dues & RR rates - Chinese gov can continue to collect tariff duties in all spheres
Created by: hollyannf08