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WVSOM -- Genetics

Genomic Organization

Sequence Distribution Sequences of most eukaryotic genomes based on how many times they are repeated Highly repetitive sequences Intermediate sequences Rare sequences
Highly repetitive sequences Up to a million copies of per genome 3% Structural, not functional
Intermediate Sequences hundreds-thousands per genome >45% Mostly degenerate retrotranspoons Viruses
Rare Sequences >50% Most functional genes belong to this class
Total base pairs in the human genome 3.2 billion Base pairs per chromosomes 45-280 million
Fraction of genome transcribed into RNA 1/3
Percent of genome that encodes protein 5%
Estimated number of genes 31,000
Transposons Jumping Genes Sequences capable of moving from one location in the genome to another. Viruses that lost their ability to jump between cells
Retroviruses RNA Viruses Parasitic DNA molecules capable of moving from one cell to another with the use of an RNA intermediate.
Retrotransposons Transposons that move through RNA intermediates. DNA sequences are transcribed into RNA which is then reversed transcribed back into DNA to be reinserted into a chromosome.
Recognition sequences Marks regions of a chromosome. They are recognized and bound by specific proteins
Sequence Analysis Computer looks for regions that are very similar and lines them up on that similarity.
Most common retrotransposon sequence Alu
Functional Intermediate Class Genes tRNA rRNA Histones (housekeeper genes)
Gene Families genes with similar, not identical sequences. Not restricted to a single genome. Can be from different organisms
Clustered gene families clusters differ from the tandem repeats of the repetitive class because the sequences are not identical, they are not as contiguous, and the genes are not necessarily oriented in the same direction.
Psuedogenes Genomic sequences similar to expressed genes, but which have been mutated so they no longer express a gene product.
Globins Globins are subunits of hemoglobin, the protein that transports O2 and CO2 through the blood.
Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) a clinical condition where fetal globin expression persists throughout life.
Thalassemias defective alpha or beta globins
Histones All five histones are homologous to each other, so they represent a gene family
Most homologous gene family known Histones
Created by: tjamrose