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Stack #1708165

QuestionAnswer
Consider a vascular lesion destroying fibers in the genu of the left internal capsule. What sensory deficits are expected? Sensory deficits on the right side of the head/face. All sensation on contralateral side of the head (right)
Name the nuclei/grey whose fibers join the - Right inferior cerebellar peduncle Right lateral cuneaute and right nucleus dorsalis
Name the nuclei/grey whose fibers join the - Right ventral trigeminothalamic tract Left chief nucleus of V, Left nucleus of spinotrigeminal tract, and Left reticular nuclei
Name the nuclei/grey whose fibers join the - Right fasciculus gracilis Right nucleus gracilis
Name the nuclei/grey whose fibers join the - right neospinothalamic tract Left nucleus proprius
What stage of consciousness is characterized by nearly absent voluntary and spontaneous movements and elicited responses only with painful stimuli? Stupor
In persistent vegetative state a person is awake but now aware because the ____________ is/are intact but the ______________ is/are functioning. Reticular activation system and Cerebral Cortex
What dural septum separates the two cerebral hemispheres? Flax Cerebri
The medial and lateral apertures connect the ________ and __________ 4th Ventricle and Cisterna magna subarachnoid space
The rate of cerebrospinal fluid formation is about ______ ml/day 500 or 0.5 ml/minute
CSF pressure is determined by the rate of __________ Arachnoid villi absorption
The primary general sensory artery for the foot is supplied but the ______ artery Anterior cerebral artery
The anterior choroidal artery is notable because it is often occluded and several structures it supplies are especially sensitive to ischemia. What are those two structures? Hippocampus and Globus Pallidus
Nuclei gracilis and cuneatus are supplied by the __________ artery Posterior spinal artery
The anterior radicular arteries branch off of the ____________ artery Segmental spinal arteries
What sensory deficits would be expected with occlusion of the posterior spinal artery supplying the left T12 spinal cord? Nothing because of anastamosis
Consider a tear of the middle meningeal artery following a blow to pterion. What type of hemorrhage will result? Epidural Hemorrhage
The subdural hemorrhage most commonly results from a blow to the front or back of the head which results in tearing of ____________ where it enters ___________ Superior cerebral Vein, Superior Sagittal Siuns
Name the region of the diencephalon described. Contains the substantia nigra and red nucleus. Includes the habenula. Subthalamus. Epithalamus
The anterior and dorsomedial nuclei of the thalamus project to _________ Structures of the limbic-system-prefrontal, cingulate, hippocampus
Area 17 receives specific afferents from the ___________. Lateral geniuclate nucleus
Name the afferents to area 5 and 7 on the left. Projection fibers from _______. Non-specific integrative groups of the thalamic nuclei
Name the afferents to area 5 and 7 on the left. Commissural fibers from _______. Areas 5&7 on right
Name the afferents to area 5 and 7 on the left. Association fibers from _______. Area 3,1,2 on the Left
Damage to midbrain reticular nuclei result in ___________. Coma
What sensory deficits are expected in the Right C2 dermatome? All general sensory
Consider the Right Neospinothalamic Tract. Where are the never cell bodies located? Left nucleus proprius
Consider the Right Neospinothalamic Tract. Where do the fibers terminate? Right Ventral Lateral Posterior Nucleus of the Thalamus
Where do fibers of Right Fasciculus Cuneatus terminate? Right Nucleus Cuneatus
Where are the nerve cell bodies of the Left ventral Trigeminothalamic tract fibers located? Right Chief Sensory Nuclei of V. Right Nuclei spinotrigeminal tract
hypertension is believed to be a significant contributing factor in the _________________ hemorrhages. Cerebral
What would not cause cerebral ischemia? papilledema
A person sustains a severe blow to the forehead and several hours later begins to show signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. What type of hemorrhage has likely occurred? Subdural
A person sustains a severe blow to the forehead and several hours later begins to show signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Which vessels are likely involved? Superior Cerebral Vein as it enters Superior Sagittal Sinus
The intralaminar, midline and posterior complex are nuclei of the thalamus belonging to the ____________ functional group. Non-Specific
Motor cortices receive afferents from the _____________ nuclei of thalamus. Ventral Lateral. Ventral Anterior Nuclei
What group of fibers pass between the caudate and lentiform nuclei? Anterior Limb of internal capsule
Name the nuclei whose fibers join the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Nucleus dorsalis, lateral cuneatus nuclei, and reticular nuclei from the brainstem
Name two groups of fibers which bring general sensation to reticula nuclei from the spinal cord. Paleospinothalamic and Spinoreticular
Name the groups of fibers which terminate on the ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus Neospinothalamic, and Medial Lemniscus
A person experiences loss of all general sensation in the Left Leg and loss of voluntary motor control in the Left Leg. Which artery was likely occluded? Right anterior cerebral artery
Name two major sources of information to the reticular nuclei that they use to affect homeostasis. hypothalamus and Sensation
What area of the brain shows early changes in Alzheimer's Disease? Hippocampus
The postcentral gyrus is located in the _________ lobe Parietal
Homotypical descirbes the majority of the cerebral cortex. What does this mean? 6 distinguishable layers of the cortex
Which regions of the cerebral cortex (areas 9, 10, 11, 12) deals with personality, emotions and judgement? Prefrontal cortex
Excessive movement of the brain relative to the skull commonly damages _________. Superior cerebral vein and superior sagittal sinus
Headache resulting from inflammation in the meninges of the posterior cranial cavity will be referred to the __________ because these meninges are innervated by ____________. Head and back of neck. First 3 Cervical Nerves
Name the region of the diencephalon where the blood brain barrier is absent. Why? Pineal Body, so hormones can be released.
Consider a lateral herniation of the L4-5 disc which impinges on one spinal root. Name the root likely affected. L4
Branches of which blood vessels lie deep to the pterion? Middle meningeal artery
Name 2 nuclei located in the midbrain tectum. Superior and inferior colliculi
Name the region of the diencephalon described - Nuclei send info to the cerebral cortex Thalamus
Name the region of the diencephalon described - Contains the red nucleus and substantia nigra Subthalamus
Name the region of the diencephalon described - Largely influences the endocrine system and autonomic nervous system Hypothalamus
Name the projection group of thalamus which - Project to the prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus Limbus projection group
Name the projection group of thalamus which - Receives information from the spinothalamic tract, ventral trigeminothalamic tract, and reticular nuclei of the brainstem. Diffuse reticular projection group
Name the Thalamic Nuclei - Belonging to the cortical association projection group Pulvinar
Name the Thalamic Nuclei - Projecting to lateral ares 3,1,2 Ventral posterior medial nucleus
The __________ is a group of fibers important in the consensual pupillary light response. Posterior Commissure
Fibers connecting the left and right prefrontal cortices are likely located in the Corpus Callosum
Consider a lesion in the genu on the right internal capsule. What sensory deficits are expected on the face. Motor and sensory deficit on the left side of the face
Consider a lesion in the genu on the right internal capsule. What sensory deficits are expected in the body? None. Genu is head.
Which tract carries an integration of proprioception and the state of excitation of the lower motor neuron from the lower extremity to the left cerebellum? Right Ventral Spinocerebellar
Consider the myotactic (stretch/deep tendon) reflex. Ia fibers from the stimulated muscle spindle synapse directly on the ____________. Alpha motor neuron and inhibitory interneuron
Give two conditions that may cause increased intracranial pressure. Hemorrhage, Tumor, Infection, Increase CSF pressure, Hydrocephalus, Meningitis
The motor and sensory speech areas communicate through the ________. Left superior longitudinal fasciculus
The ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus projects to _________. 3,1,2 superior and medial portion
Give the location of the nerve cell bodies whose fibers join the - Left Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle Left Lateral Cuneate and Left Nucleus Dorsalis
Give the location of the nerve cell bodies whose fibers join the - Left superior cerebellar peduncle Left dorsal horn
What information is carried in the fasciculus cuneatus? T6 and above, discriminating touch, conscious proprioception, vibration
Consider the reticular nuclei that project to autonomic nuclei. Which afferents to these reticular nuclei would be especially important for the control of blood pressure? Hypothalamus and visceral afferents
Explain how the left lateral corticospinal tract terminating in the lumbosacral cord can influence input to the cerebellum? By synapsing info to the right ventral spinocerebellar tract in the dorsal horn, This tract takes integrative info and LMN excitation info back to the cerebellum.
The "open'' medulla is so named because of the presence of the _________ 4th Ventricle
Choroid plexus produces about ________ % of the CSF 70
Name an area of the brain that lacks the blood brain barrier. Pineal body
What causes hydrocephalaus? Increased CSF production. Obstructed CSF flow. Blocked absorption of CSF.
Enecephalocele and anencephaly both result from improper _________. Closure of anterior neural tube.
Descending motor fibers which terminate on gamma motor neurons influence _________. Muscle tone
An occlusion of the __________ artery would likely result in language deficits. Left Middle Cerebral artery
Nuclei gracilis and cuneatus are supplied by the _________ artery. Posterior Spinal
A person presents with sudden onset of an extremely severe headache without history of head trauma. What most likely is the cause of this hemorrhage? Congenital Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
A person presents with sudden onset of an extremely severe headache without history of head trauma. If spinal tap is performed on this person, what abnormality is likely in the composition of the CSF? Blood to yellowish color because of RBC breakdown in subarachnoid space
Name the structure of the diencephalon which controls circadian rhythms. pineal Body
An interruption of the posterior spinal artery supplying the L2 spinal cord does not result in observable deficits, Why? Due to anastomosis
A person with an abnormal tumor develops signs and symptoms of a CNS problem. Explain why this is possible. The tumor could cause increased pressure and clamp off blood supply to the chord.
The ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus belongs to the ______ projection group. motor
What specific group of fibers is important in bilateral learning? Commissural fibers in corpus Callosum
By which group of fibers do the motor speech and sensory language areas communicate? include side Left superior longitudinal faniculis
what type of tissue forms the septum pellucidum Neural tissue
The primary general sensory cortex is located in the 1. _____ lobe on the 2._____ gyrus 1. Parietal 2. postcentral gyrus
Mark the most common site of calcification of the choroid plexus (diagram on exam) Lateral ventricles
A person receives a blow to the pterion severing a branch of th middle meningeal artery. What type of hemorrhage and and enlarging clot would put pressure on which specific part of the brain? Epidural hemorrhage Precentral gyrus- motor disturbances
At the C5 level, which groups of fibers are carrying fibers for conscious proprioception Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus
The most common cause of traumatic death in infants is ____ Shaken baby syndrome
The ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus projects to Medial and superior aspects of Areas 3,1,2
Fibers connecting contralateral areas 5 and 7 are located specifically in the Corpus callosum (commissural fibers)
Give the location of the nerve cell bodies whose fibers join the A. left inferior cerebellar peduncle B.Left superior cerebellar peduncle A. Left nucleus dorsalis, Left lateral cuneate nucleus B. Left mesencephalic, Left reticular
Name the thalamic nuclei described: A. Belongs to the specific group. B. Projects to area 17 A. Lateral geniculate, medial geniculate B. Lateral geniculate
Name the thalamic nuclei described: A. Receives fibers from sensory association cortices B. receives fibers from reticular nuclei involved in reticular activation A. Pulvinar B. Intralaminar and posterior complex
What information is carried in fascicles cuneatus discriminating touch, conscious proprioception and vibration form T6 and ABOVE
The intralaminar, midline, and posterior complex project to ____ of the cortex Wide areas
What is the general function of the nuclei of the subthalamus? Motor
Yellow colored CFS suggests Bilirubin present in CSF
A meningomyelocele involves the herniation of: The spinal cord and its adjoining meninges
Give the termination(s) of the following tracts/fibers: A. right medial leminscus B. right ventral spinocerebellar tract A. right VPLN B. left cerebellum
Consider an interruption of fibers of R genu. which is most likely? inability to: chew on right, smile on left, close left eye, open right eye Inability to smile on the left and inability to close left eye
hemidissection of the R C2 spinal cord. A. what sensory deficits are expected in R arm? L leg? R cheek? R C2 dermatome? R arm= discriminating touch, proprioception. L leg= pain. R cheek= pain. R C2 dermatome= pain, disc touch, and proprioception
consider an occlusion of the anterior spinal artery at T3. what areas would the following deficits be observed? pain, disc touch, vol motor Pain deficits= L&R legs Discriminating touch deficits= none. Voluntary motor deficits= L&R legs
consider a hemidissection of the R T3 spinal cord. i. pain deficits in___. ii Disc touch deficits in ___. iii vol motor control deficits in ___ i. left leg. ii right leg. iii right leg
consider an occlusion of the right anterior cerebral artery. i discriminating touch deficits in __ ii col motor deficits in ___ i. left leg ii. left leg
consider an occlusion of the L post. inf. cerebellar artery. i paindeficits in___. ii Disc touch deficits in ___. iii vol motor control deficits in ___ i. right arm right leg ii. no deficit iii. no deficit
consider an occlusion of the anterior spinal a. supplying C4 spinal cord i. pain deficits in___. ii Disc touch deficits in ___ i. right/left arm and right/left leg. ii. no deficit
consider destruction of the fibers in the genu of the left internal capsule. which areas would lack general sensation? Right cheek
hemidissection of R C2 spinal cord. i. pain. ii. dis touch. iii. conscious proprio. deficits in which modalities are seen in R C2 dermatomes i. left arm/leg and right cheek. ii. right arm and leg. iii. right arm/leg. iv. all general sensations
consider an occlusion of the anterior spinal a. supplying T10 spinal cord. i. pain ii. discriminating touch i. right/left leg ii. no deficit
consider a left hemidissection of C2 spinal cord. i. pain. ii. disc touch. iii. conscious proprioception i. right arm/leg and left cheek. ii. left arm/leg. iii. left arm/leg
occlusion of left middle cerebral artery. i. vol motor deficits. ii. pain deficits. iii. are language deficits expected? i. right smile/ muscles of mastication. ii. right upper and lower face. iii. yes because the L middle cerebral a supplies the L frontal and parietal lobes
hemidissction of the R C2 spinal cord. i. sensory deficits in R arm? ii. L leg? iii. R cheek? iv. R C2 dermatome v. L arm vi. R leg i. disc rim touch consc prop. ii pain. iii. pain. iv. pain, discrim touch, consc prop. v. pain. vi. disc touch, consc prop.
left hemidissection of the T2 spinal cord. i. R arm. ii. L arm. iii. R leg. iv. L leg. v. L T2 dermatome i. no def. ii. no def. iii. pain, volunt motor control. iv. disc touch, cons prop. v. no deficit
consider a person with an occlusion of the anterior spinal artery supplying C4 cord. i. R leg. ii. L leg i and ii= pain, temp. crude touch, pressure
consider an occlusion of the anterior spinal artery supplying L4 cord. i. R arm. ii. L arm. iii. R leg. iv. L leg i. no deficit. ii. no dificit. iii. voluntary motor, pain. iv. voluntary motor, pain.
Created by: northwesternbjg