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Chapter 3 Vocab

Key Words and People

TermDefinition
Calvinism dominant theological credo of New England Puritans based of the teachings of John Calvin; believed in predestination-that the elect were destined for salvation
Predestination Calvinist doctrine that God has ordained some people to be saved and some people to be damned; Calvinist believed that those destined for salvation sought to lead sanctified lives in order to demonstrate to others that they are members of the "elect"
Conversion intense religious experience that confirmed and individuals place among the "elect" or the "visible saints;" Calvinist who experienced conversions were then expected to live sanctified lives to demonstrate their salvation
Puritans English protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of the Catholic rituals and creeds; some devout puritans believed only "visible saints" should be church members
Seperatists small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of England; after settling in Holland a number of settlers went to Plymouth Bay Massachusetts in 1620
Mayflower Compact (1620): agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower created a foundation for self-gov. colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony (founded in 1630): established by non-separating puritans it soon grew to be the largest and most influential New England colonies
Great Migration (1630-1642)migration of seventy thousands refugees from England to North America colonies; the twenty thousand people that migrated to Massachusetts had a common purpose-to establish a modern Christian settlement in the New World
Antinomianism believed that the elect may not obey the command of God or man; most notably exposed in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson
Fundemental Orders (1639)drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, document that was the first modern constitution established a democratically controlled gov.
Pequot War (1636-1638): series of clashes between English settles and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River Valley; ended in slaughter for Pequot Indians by Puritans and their Narragansett Indian allies
King Phillips War (1675-1676): series of assaults by Metacom King Phillip on English settlements in New England; the attacks slowed western migration of New England settlers for several decades
New England Confederation (1643): weak union of the colony Massachusetts and Connecticut led by Puritans for the purpose of defense and organization, and early attempt at self-gov. during the benign neglect of the English Civil War
English Civil War (1642-1651): armed conflict between royalist and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-parliament and the execution of Charles I
Dominion of New England all of New England, New York, & East & West New Jersey ruled by Sir Edmund Andros curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent, & strictly enforced Navigation Laws
Navigation Laws series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts providing that English ships could only trade with English and colonial ports, and that all goods destined for the colonies would pass through England
Glorious (Bloodless) Revolution (1688): relatively peaceful overthrow of Catholic monarch James II, replacing him with Dutch-born William III and Mary daughter of James II; William and Mary accepted increased Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchial authorit
Salutary Neglect (1688-1763): unofficial policy on relaxed royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforcement of Navigation Laws; lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the End of the French and Indian Wars in 1763
Patroonship vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange to bringing 50 settlers to the property
Quakers religious group known for their tolerance emphasis on peace, and idealistic Indian policy who settled heavily in Penn. In 17 & 18 century
Blue Laws also known as sumptuary laws they are designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality; passed along colonies especially with puritans and Quakers
Martin Luther a. German friar that challenged the Roman Catholic Church with his ideas b. he started a religion called Lutheranism
John Calvin a. religious leader that elaborated of Martin Luther's ideas b. started the religion of Calvinism
John Winthrop a. Mass. Bay colony first governor that served for 19 years; b. successful manor lord and attorney in England; c. helps Mass. Prosper in ship building, fur trading, and fishing d. "We shall be a city upon a hill," a beacon for humanity.
Ann Hutchinson -Held unorthodox views that challenged the Puritan clergy & integrity of the Puritans in the Mass. Bay Colony -Outcast -Believed in antinomianism -Rejected basically all puritans said -Kicked out of Mass. & Attacked by Indians in route NY and killed
William Bradford a. a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch b. leader of the Pilgrims c. elected as governor thirty times
Roger Williams -Salem Minister -Radical ideas & unrestrained tongue -Extreme separatists -Wanted a clean break from the Church of England -Challenged Bay Colony Charter -Deny gov. to regulate religious behavior 1635 -kicked out of colony for spreading dangerous opinion
Massasoit Wampanoag chief signed a treaty in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first thanksgiving after the autumn harvest the same year
Metacom (King Phillip) -Massasoit's son -Forged an alliance and mounted a coordinated attack on the English villages throughout New England -War ended in 1676 -Metacoms wife and son were sold into slavery -Metacom was beheaded +Head was put on a pike to display for all to see
Charles II -New Haven disfavor cause they had 2 judges condemned his father to death -Granted charter to Connecticut New Haven & Connecticut colony merged creating more democratic settlement -Separated New Hampshire & Mass. in 1679 -Aggressive hold on colonies
Sir Edmond Andros tried to flee the Boston mob in woman's clothing but got discovered because of the boots e was wearing and got shipped back to England
William III & Mary II a. James II was dethroned by Glorious (Bloodless) Revolution b. To replace him was William III & Mary II (which was James II daughter)
Henry Hudson a. Seeking riches a company hired him as an explorer b. Ignored orders to sail north east and sailed towards Delaware and NY in 1609 c. Found for the Dutch the Hudson River and Woods
Peter Stuyvesant a. Leader of small military militia that the Dutch released in 1655 sent over to establish new colony of Amsterdam b. Lost 1 leg
Duke of York a. Brother of Charles II b. Charles II gave New York to Duke of York c. Gained New Amsterdam from Peter Stuyvesant
William Penn a. 16 year old Englishmen attracted to Quaker faith in 1660 b. Went to the New World to establish Quaker Colony c. Called Pennsylvania
Created by: snossenkopp