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ACh.11 Progressivism

Am. Cultures - Ch.11 - Progressivism

TermDefinition
Upton Sinclair American writer and journalist who published "The Jungle," a novel that exposes his investigations of the horrible working conditions in the meat-packing industry
Progressive Era Period from about 1890 to 1920, during which a variety of social, moral, economic, and political reforms (changes) were made at the local, state, and federal levels of society
Progressives Reformers, including Republicans, Democrats, and members of other political parties, who shared the common beliefs that Government should: be more accountable to its citizens, curb the power/influence of wealthy interests, & be more efficient/less corrupt
Henry George Author of "Progress and Poverty," a book in which he tried to explain the growing gap between the rich and the poor; he proposed that the gov't. charge landowners a single tax on the value of the land to deter them from holding land without using it.
Edward Bellamy Author of "Looking Backward," a book about a man who wakes up from a hypnosis-induced sleep to find the U.S. has transformed into a socialist utopia
Muckraker Journalist who uncovers wrongdoing in politics or business
Injunction Court order that prohibits a certain activity; was often used to prevent workers from going on strike
Socialism Economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income
Florence Kelley A leader in the work for labor reform, she fought to prohibit child labor, limit working hours for women, and regulate sweatshop conditions
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones Reformer who fought to improve workplace conditions; she became best known for organizing unions in the mines of West Virginia and Colorado
Social welfare programs Programs, such as unemployment benefits, accident and health insurance, minimum wage, and social security, designed to ensure a basic standard of living for all citizens
Municipal Relating to the city, as in a municipal government
Home rule System that gives cities a limited degree of self-rule
Direct primary Election in which all citizens, not party leaders, select candidates for state and local offices in upcoming elections
Initiative Process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters' signatures on a petition
Referendum Process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by their legislature
Recall Procedure that allows voters to remove elected government officials from office
Holding company Firm that buys up stocks and bonds of smaller companies
Robert M. La Follette Progressive reform governor of Wisconsin who initiated a crusade against political bosses and brought about changes, such as direct primary and civil service reform
Square Deal Policy in which President Roosevelt pressured mine owners (by threatening to use army force to seize and operate the mines) into agreeing to submit to arbitration with United Mine Workers after they called a strike to protest their low wages
Sherman Antitrust Act Law passed by Congress in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce
Hepburn Act Law passed by Congress in 1906 which authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate railroad rates
Pure Food and Drug Act Law passed in 1906 that banned interstate shipping of impure food and deliberate mislabeling of food and drugs
Meat Inspection Act Law passed in 1906 that required federal inspection of meat processing to ensure sanitary conditions
Department of Labor Cabinet-level department created in 1913 to promote the welfare and employment of working people
National Reclamation Act Law passed in 1902 that allowed money from the sale of public lands to be used to build irrigation systems in arid states
16th Amendment Ratified in 1913 and authorized Congress to collect federal income taxes (it enabled the government to get more revenues from people with higher incomes)
17th Amendment Ratified in 1913 and allowed direct election of senators
18th Amendment Ratified in 1919 and prohibited the production, sale, or import of liquor
19th Amendment Ratified in 1921 and granted women full suffrage (right to vote)
Conservationist People who favor the protection of natural resources
New Nationalism Theodore Roosevelt's plan for greater federal regulation of business, welfare laws, workplace protection for women and children, income and inheritance taxes, and voting reform
Bull Moose Party Nickname of the Progressive Party
Clayton Antitrust Act Law passed in 1914 to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; specified big business activities that were forbidden
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 1914 Commission established by President Wilson and Congress to enforce the Clayton Act and establish fair-trade laws
Federal Reserve System The nation's central banking system, established in 1913
Civil disobediance Nonviolent refusal to obey a law in an effort to change it
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Organization formed in 1890 to continue the pursuit of women's rights, especially the right to vote
Congressional Union (CU) Radical organization formed in 1913 and led by Alice Paul that campaigned for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women's suffrage
Susan B. Anthony Social reformer who played an important role in the women's suffrage movement; Co-founder and president of NAWSA from 1892 until 1900
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Co-founded the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Ida Tarbell Investigative journalist who revealed the abuses committed by the Standard Oil Trust in her 1904 book, "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
Created by: tmgilbert