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S.S. Chapter 6 Vocab
|Edwin L. Drake
|Successor of the steam engine to drill for oil in Pennsylvania. This started an oil boom in cities such as Cleveland.
|A cheap and efficient process for making steel, developed around 1850
|Thomas Alva Edison
|Established the world's first research laboratory in NJ. Perfected the incandescent light bulb and invented a system for producing and distributing electrical power.
|Inventor of the typewriter in 1867.
|Alexander Graham Bell
|Inventor of the telephone in 1876.
|A railroad line linking the and Pacific coasts of the United States, completed in 1869.
|George M. Pullman
|Built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on the Illinois Prairie.
|A construction company formed in 1864 by owners of the Union Pacific Railroad, who used it to fraudulently skim off railroad profits for themselves.
|Munn v. Illinois
|An 1877 case in which the Supreme Court upheld states' regulation of railroads for the benefits of farmers and consumers, thus establishing the right of government to regulate private industry to serve the public interest.
|Interstate Commerce Act
|A law, enacted in 1887, that established the federal government's right to supervise railroad activities and created a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so.
|Private secretary to the local superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad. One morning, he single-handedly relayed messages that unsnarled a tangle of freight and passenger trains. He was rewarded with the opportunity to buy stock.
|Vertical and Horizontal Integration
|Vertical- A company's taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over the quality and cost of its product. Horizontal- The merging of companies that make similar products.
|An economic and social philosophy- supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection- holding that a system of restrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest.
|John D. Rockefeller
|Established the Standard Oil Company, joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Used his trust to gain total control of the oil industry in America.
|Sherman Antitrust Act
|A law, enacted in 1890, that was intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade.
|A Jewish immigrant who led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join other craft unions in 1886.
|American Federation of Labor (AFL)
|A group that focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions. Used strikes as a major tactic.
|Eugene V. Debs
|Attempted to form such an industrial union- The American Railway Union ( ARU).
|Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
|A labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905.
|Mary Harris Jones
|The most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement who supported the Great Strike of 1877and later organized for the United Mine Workers of America ( UMW). Exposed the cruelties of cild labor,