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African Hist Midterm
Ch.6,Ch.7 Trans-Saharan Trade, Ancient Ghana, and Empire of Mali
|What was the early form of transportation for trade across Sahara
|What are the disadvantages of pack-oxen
|cannot carry as much luggage, needs to have water.
|who are the Berbers and what did they sell?
|desert dwellers and sold saharan salt and food
|what are oases
|only places water was available in the desert. cities were built along these spots
|why is it difficult to travel across Sahara?
|sandstorms make it difficult to see far. extreme temperatures. raids from Berbers. no water until oasis
|advantages of the camel
|go long distances without water (store water and food in the hump). can carry heavier goods. can walk on soft hot sand
|Impact of the camel
|more reliable. go farther. sub saharan products now available to med world. important trading settlements developed on Sahel
|Who were the principal desert traders
|Sanhaja Berbers (western Sahara) . Taureg (central and southern Sahara)
|what the main occupation of the desert traders?
|nomadic pastoralists- grazed sheep, goats, camel.
|who dominated saharan oases? what did they do here?
|Berbers. dug salt to exchange for food at Taghaza. harvested dates.
|Why is Ancient Ghana an important center for trade?
|control and tax the salt from Taghaza and the gold from the South (Bambuk and Boure) because they are located in the middle of the two.
|What caused fall of Ghana?
|invasion by Muslim Almoravids and they lost control of Trans-saharan trade. Malinke and Soninke assert autonomy. religious conflict (muslims vs. non-muslims) and environmental crisis (land exhaustion)
|Al Fazari called Ancient Ghana what nickname?
|Land of the Gold
|For written descriptions of Ghana who do we go to?
|Arabs-outsiders specifically Al Bakri and Al Fazari
|what is capital of Ancient Ghana? how was it described by Al-Bakri?
|Kumbi-Saleh. 2 separate towns: 1. distinctly Islamic town for merchants with a lot of mosques and 2. King's royal town
|describe ancient ghana and the king in terms of Al-Bakri's description
|King and his court wear lots of gold. around royal town are huts and groves where they keep the idols and bury the kings. class society (there are slaves). drum is important to introduce the king.
|how does ancient ghanian king show his wealth?
|adorn himself in female ornaments around neck and arms. gold embroidered caps. turbans of fine cotton. people approach king on their knees.
|who is successor of throne in ancient ghana?
|the nephew of the king because king is not sure his son is actually blood (mother sleeps around)
|Who were founders of Mali? Ghana?
|Malinke (Mali) Soninke (Ghana)
|Soninke and Malinke belong to what group? (In Sundiata epic)
|Mandingo speaking people
|When was Empire of Mali discovered?
|1235 when Sundiata led resistance against the Sosso and its leader Soumarro Kante (Sumanguru)
|Sundiata is part of what clan?
|Keita - the rulers of Mali
|Who tells story of Sundiata?
|Griot Mamadou Kouyate
|what are the main sources of information about Mali
|"Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali" . Written sources by muslim Ibn Battatu
|What is the nickname for Ancient Mali
|the "Bright Country"
|who is the Bambara
|a subgroup of Malinke (Mali people)
|who is creator of all things in malinke religion? what is life force called?
|Faro. life force is nyama
|role of the ancestors
|the link between man and god
|role of the elders
|link between man and ancestors
|what religion is also discussed in sundiata epic
|what is the economic basis of malinke society
|what are the gender roles
|women- raise kids. provide sauce for meal. tend to livestock. men- provide millet used in the meal. maintain home structure. relations with other families.
|role of the family in malinke society
|connection to every individual and to group as a whole. noone is individual, everyone has a family.
|the role of the griot
|professional historians who served the ruler like modern day legal staff. orators who relay words of the kings to the rest of the population
|What are secret societies?
|Komo- initiation into manhood. training period to learn the secrets of religion. bonding with same age group (lifelong friends)
|sundiata traced lineage to who?
|Bilali in Islamic religion. Bilali was one of the original followers of Muhammad
|Where was Sundiata exiled to? and where did he travel
|start: Niani (Mali). Djedeba (King Mansa Konkon) game of Wori where king tried to kill him. Fouta Djallon (king of Tabon)