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CCMS SS Chapter 2

Foundation Units of Geography, Economics, and Government

TermDefinition
projection a way of showing the Earth on a flat sheet of paper
hemisphere a "half sphere," used to refer to one-half of the globe
latitude imaginary lines that circle the Earth parallel to the Equator
longitude imaginary lines that circle the Earth from pole to pole
physical map a map that shows land and water features
political map a map that shows the names and borders of countries
special-purpose map a map that shows themes or patterns such as climate, natural resources, or population
scale a measuring line that shows the distances on a map
cardinal directions north, south, east, and west
choropleth a special-purpose map that uses colors to show population density
migration the movement of people from one place to settle in another place
cultur the set of beliefs, behaviors, and traits shared by a group of people
capital money and goods used to help people make or do things
entrepreneurship the act of running a business and taking on the risks of that business
supply the amount of a good or service that a producer wants to sell
demand the amount of a good or service that a consumer wants to buy
scarcity lack of a resource
opportunity cost what a person gives up when they choose to make or buy a product
traditional economy an economic system in which custom decides what people do, make, buy, and sell
command economy an economic system in which a central government decides what goods will be made
recession a period of slow economic growth or decline
inflation a rise in prices and a drop in the value of money
exports goods sent from one country to another in trade
imports goods brought into one country from another in trade
barter to trade by exchanging one good or service for another
globalization the growth in free trade between countries
representative government government in which citizens elect officials who govern
federal system government which divides power between a central government and state governments
separation of powers the division of power between the branches of government
checks and balances system in which each branch of government limits the power of another branch
legislative branch the part of government that passes laws
executive branch the part of government that enforces laws
judicial branch the part of government that interprets laws
Anarchy Nobody is in controls.
Monarchy A King or Queen rules the country
Dictatorship One leader has absolute control over citizen’s lives. (usually a military leader)
Oligarchy Greek word that means “Rule by a Few”
Democracy Citizens hold the political power. POWER TO THE PEOPLE!.
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