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African Hist Midterm
Ch.3,Ch.4 Nubia Kush & Meroe, Aksum, Bantu Migration
|What is the distinction between Nubia, Kush and Meroe civilizations? (who took over whom)
|Nubia turns into Kush and is pushed further south (same people). Meroe replaces Kush
|Where is Nubia, Kush and Meroe located?
|Along the Nile
|what is Nubia known as?
|The Land of the Bow because hunters are excellent archers
|Describe farming and pastoralism in Nubia
|Cattle culture is important and they farm Grains, peas, lentils, dates, melons
|What happened when Egyptians conquered Nubia?
|became part of New Kingdom, adopted Egyptian language, reading and writing
|What is super important commodity of trade in nubia?
|Gold! Carnelian (mineral) and Ivory also important
|What happened to Nubia after New Kingdom falls
|became independent. they moved their capital to Napata on Nile and became Kush
|What are sources of information about Nubia
|Meroe: Greek and Roman Literature. Texts by nubian pharoahs
|What is primary activity in Kush (same as Nubia)
|hunting using bows and arrows. evidence- rock art, hunted for ivory and animal skins archers are core of army
|3 major factors that contributed to rise of Meroe
|location! (between two tributaries of Nile, developed mixed agriculture and kept livestock) Abundant natural resources (iron) Trade (w/ Egypt and shorter route)
|Why is Iron and timber important in Meroitic industry
|make agricultural tools, military weapons, important aspect of trade. timber is used in the process to smelt iron
|Why does Meroe have a great location
|they are in between rivers of Nile- mixed agriculture including livestock and tropic cereals. Trade with Egypt in a shorter less perilous route. Red Sea was outlet for Meroe when Egypt failed in trade
|most dominant art forms in meroe
|pictures, engravings of statues of tropical african animals
|2 classes of pottery in meroe
|fine painted luxury ware on the wheel and handmade domestic ware made by hand
|describe meroe's unique form of architecture
|pyramids are smaller, unpointed and regular in shape and size
|Meroe vs. Egyptian political organization
|less political control in Meroe, not as heavily taxed but in Egypt they are heavily taxed and have more centralized gov't
|How is Meroe's political organization different than Egypt
|King's power is limited- required consent from the people. succession to the thrne was not automatic. queen mother was important to maintain stability and continuity between reigns
|where does personal wealth come from in meroe
|what is the principal industrial enterprise in meroe? evidence?
|iron. evidence- lots of slag left behind from smelting of iron
|Who did the meroetic people get their culture from?
|assimilated all of egypts culture (language, religion, writing) but had own language (Language of Court)
|Religion of Meroe
|kept egyptian gods but added Lion God Apedemek
|What caused Fall of Meroe?
|Lost basis of economic power , iron industry collapsed, agriculture deforestation, foreign trade fell, clash with roman rulers of Egypt
|Where is Aksum located? what is their nickname?
|northern Ethiopia, known as "The Land of Punt"
|What aspect of Aksum helped their trade
|location close to Red Sea, known to Egyptians
|What is a Stelae?
|Tall thin building unique to Aksum made out of stone
|what agricultural crops are important in Aksum? (hint: Ethiopia)
|Tef, Ensete, Finger millet, and Noog
|Who were the Yemen and why did they come to Aksum?
|Traders and hunters that came to Aksum for the wonderful trade
|Describe story of Solomonoid Dynasty
|King Solomon tricked the Queen of Sheba into sleeping with him and her son Menelik founded the Ethiopian dynasty aka Solomonoid Dynasty
|Why do Ethiopians associate themselves with King Solomon and Solomonoid Dynasty?
|Ethiopians trying to track their themselves to Israelites (king solomon is an israelite) because they are the chosen ones by the gods. Ethiopians trying to legitimize their power
|What is in the ark of the covenant? who can see it?
|10 commandments only priests can enter, nobody really knows what is in it in Ethiopia
|What discovery helped trade in Aksum
|trade winds, monsoon winds blowing north and south half the year.(you sail in direction of the wind)
|What evidence do we have about Aksum trade?
|"Periplus of the Erythrean Sea" -greek sailors manual to the red sea. archaeological evidence
|who is king of aksum
|Describe Aksum currency
|developed their own coinage with disc and crescent replaced by a cross (shows influence of christianity)
|How did Christianity come to Aksum?
|Alexandrian merchant was traveling through Aksum and became shipwrecked. His sons Frumentius were captured but turned out to be smart and was appointed as bishop. King Ezana became Christian to cement trade with Greeks.
|What spurred the decline of Aksum
|competition with the Persians (they took over trade and moved major spot from red sea to persian sea). Rise of Islam. ecological disaster (just like meroe)
|what was the principal export in aksum
|ivory and slaves. frankincense and myrrh also unique to aksum
|what are the major debates surrounding bantu migration?
|Where did they originate? What direction did they take? what factors and developments did Bantu have to allow this dispersed migration?
|When was the name Bantu first used and by who? what does it mean
|1862 by Wilhelm Bleck. every language in southern Africa used prefix "Ba" means that they are all related and have common origins
|What do historians assume Bantu people spread
|mixed agriculture and iron working.
|What are some assumptions about the bantu migration?
|Population explosion forced Bantu to expand, used iron technology to clear savannah. OR... large scale migration of whole new people.
|What do we know to be truth about the spread of the bantu
|happened in small numbers over long period of time. they absorbed into other communities peacefully. should really be called expansion not migration
|Do all Bantu speaking people look the same?
|no they are very different because of the dispersion and a lot speak different dialects.
|what is the first hypothesis of where did bantu originate?
|Harry Johnston - they started in East Africa (Lake Nyanza) and moved to the west
|Hypothesis 2- Bantu Origination
|Joseph Greenberg - used lingusitic evidence places bantu in central benue valley and they moved southeastwards
|Hypothesis 3 - Bantu Origination
|Thomas Spear - earliest bantu speakers lived in Benue-Congo spread through Congo and split into 8 subgroups
|How did Thomas Spear arrive at his conclusion for bantu expansion?
|Language. Bantu cultivated yams, nuts and palm oil which are in eastern africa. they had not cultivated sorghum and millet which is in west africa.
|What did Bantu adopt from the savannas
|cattle herding and grain cultivation
|what did Bantu adopt from Sudanic and Cushitic speaking people (eastern Africa)
|iron working, mixed agriculture
|What was the impact of the adoption of mixed agriculture from eastern african people
|revolutionized Bantu community. became healthier. better farming materials and weaponry (iron). Bantu expands more rapidly
|What is the true spread of Bantu migration?
|originated in Cameroon and Nigeria (Benue Region) spread east and south to savanna woodlands.
|what new crops came from south east asia to bantu
|banana and asian yam
|what are the two branches of bantu speakers
|eastern and western
|where is the eastern Bantu located
|both sides of the Western Rift Valley (between Uganda and Dem. Rep. Congo) first ones to get iron working
|What are the two types of pottery in eastern bantu?
|urewe ware and kwale ware
|describe urewe ware (location)
|dimple based pottery, near lake Victoria, eastern bantu
|describe kwale ware (location, type of skill)
|eastern bantu found near mt. kiliminjaro and Uvinza (lake tanganyika). ceremonial and metallurgical skill
|what area is meant when we say Early Iron Age?
|Bantu speaking farmers throughout southern half of the continent
|Western bantu have what kind of pottery
|bambata pottery. gokomere-ziwa. ceramic heads
|what were ceramic heads used in western bantu
|ceremonial as religious masks. animal heads. lydenberg, South Africa
|describe what ceramic head of western bantu looks like
|scarrification on face as a sign of beauty. on top looks like a crown
|What is the basis of economy for the early iron age society (bantu)
|farming. main crops are sorghum and millet. hunting and gathering. some kept livestock for meat and sacrifices.