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Unit 4 Vocab US

QuestionAnswer
Subsidies Grants of money from the federal government that helped investors at the time build the railways cheaply
Chinese Exclusion Act Made it impossible for new Chinese immigrants to come into America after they were used to complete the Transcontinental Railroad, often split families who were unable to unite after the law was passed
Battle of Wounded Knee Ended the Indian Wars and changed the US’s policy towards Native Americans. 300 Sioux Native Americans were killed because the United States misinterpreted the Native American Ghost Dance as an act of rebellion
Dawes Severalty Act stressed assimilating Native Americans Included the splitting of reservations into individual plots of land and shipping Native American children off to boarding schools in the East to be taught how to be “more white.”
Assimilation process by which a minority group of people lose their culture to the dominant group of people in an area in this case, Native Americans becoming more “Americanized.”
Protective Tariffs tariffs that taxed foreign goods to ensure that the products of American companies would be the cheapest and not have to compete with foreign businesses
The Gilded Age time period in American History from around 1877-1900 referring to the time when industry boomed creating a thin layer of success (like a gold plate) that covered the poverty and corruption that existed within society (coined by Mark Twain)
Social Darwinism belief coined by Herbert Spencer: some peoples and races were just naturally more fit in society and that is why certain groups got rich and controlled society and others were laborers or second class citizens (coined the term survival of the fittest)
Laissez-faire Economics belief that the government should not interfere with the economy and just let it runs its natural course
Capitalism economic system where businesses are privately owned by individuals or stock holders and their goal is to make a profit for the owners
Stocks part ownership in a business which leads to sharing in part of the company’s profits
Corporation Company owned by stock holders
Robber barons The owners of monopolies of the Industrial Age who used questionable tactics and had large amounts of political and social power
Monopoly one company that controls an entire industry often called trusts
Vertical Integration controlling every aspect of production from the resources to the selling of the product
Cornelius Vanderbilt controlled the railroad industry from New York to Chicago
John D. Rockefeller Started Standard Oil and controlled the oil industry by becoming the first trust, controlling and buying up many small oil companies
Andrew Carnegie Controlled the steel industry
Gospel of Wealth belief that these captains of industry had the God given right to make more and more money but it was their obligation to use this money to better society, lead many of these Robb
JP Morgan was a finance capitalist meaning he was a banker who gained riches through investing in stocks and bonds, will eventually buy Carnegie Steel
Sherman Anti-Trust Act attempt by the federal government to break up monopolies and increase competition to protect the rights of consumers. It was deemed unconstitutional but would became the foundation for an era of “trust busting” later.
Populism known as the people’s party, supported the desires of farmers wanting money to be backed by gold and silver and subsidies and also supported the needs of laborers such as shorter work days, an income tax based on income level, and education reform
Cross of Gold Speech William Jennings Bryan, Democratic candidate in 1896, ran his campaign against Grover Cleveland who supported only having money backed by gold. Bryan supported bimetallism and having money backed by gold and silver.
Urbanization the large scale migration to cities which began as a result of the United States economy switching from agricultural base to an industrial base
Nativism opposition to immigration leading to violence and discrimination against immigrants during the late 19th early 20th century
Unions groups of workers who come together to promote a cause using methods such as strikes to force employers to give into their demands
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 1911 killed 146 workers because owners locked emergency exits to prevent workers from leaving early during regular hours, trapping them during the fire. This would spread awareness of the terrible conditions industrial workers were faced with
Tenements Large Multi-story apartments. During the Industrial Revolution these were often owned by factory owners to provide housing for their workers. They were unsanitary, cheap, and cramped
Political Machines political party bosses that used coercion, bribery, and intimidation to force people into voting certain individuals or parties into office
Railroad Strike of 1877 Government will send federal troops to stop railroad workers from violently protesting the 10% decrease in their wages
Pullman Strike Run by Eugene Debs, factory begins boycotting and striking their reduction in pay federal government sends in troops ending the strike and setting a precedence that factory owners can appeal to the courts and government to end strikes
Eugene Debs becomes a socialist believing that businesses should be owned by the public or government and work for the good of all workers not just individual owners
Progressive Movement era of political, social, and economic change in American that saw successes in gaining rights for workers, the breakup of monopolies to protect consumers, and the ending of political machines
Muckrakers journalists who exposed the social evils of society such as terrible working conditions in factories
The Jungle book written by Upton Sinclair exposing the horrible conditions of the Chicago meat packing industry eventually leading to government inspections of foods and factories
Jane Addams created the Hull House, a settlement house where social activists could live in poor neighborhoods to help the urban poor and immigrants
Temperance Movement movement to end the selling, making, and transporting of alcohol eventually occurring in 1919 with the 18th amendment
Women’s Suffrage Movement movement to gain the right to vote for women, will occur with the 19th amendment in 1920
Theodore Roosevelt progressive president who stands up for the workers and begins a campaign to “bust trusts” breaking up monopolies as well as passing meat inspection act
William Taft President who continues Roosevelt’s trust busting
Bull Moose Party similar to the populists desiring better working conditions, women’s suffrage, and direct elections of Senators, Theodore Roosevelt is their representative, ends up splitting the republican vote leading Democratic Woodrow Wilson to win the 1912 election
Woodrow Wilson progressive president opposed to big business and established the Federal Reserve Act providing new money for farmers, also president during WWI
Clayton Anti-Trust Act passed by Woodrow Wilson this made striking, boycotting, and peaceful protest legal
16th Amendment Establishes a national income tax on businesses and individuals
17th Amendment makes senators directly elected by the people rather than State legislatures
Created by: ahowe