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Chapter 5

Bessemer Process Efficient method of making steel by blowing hot air through iron. Developed by british inventor Henry Bessemer in the 1850s.
Transcontinental Railroad Railroad that crossed the continental US. Completed in 1869.
Patent Exclusive right to manufacture and sell an invention.
Orville & Wilbur Wright Invented the airplane.
Samuel Morse Invented the telegraph & Morse code.
Alexander Graham Bell Invented the telephone.
Christopher Sholes Invented the typewriter
Thomas Edison Invented the electric light. Had over 1000 patents. INvented the modern research lab (Menlo Park).
Laissez-Faire Capitalism The government stays out of the way and people fend for themselves.
Karl Marx Communism Everyone is 'equal' and wealth is evenly distributed by the government
Social Darwinism Survival of he fittest. Big corporations get big simply because they are the best of the best.
Trust A group of companies run as a single enterprise by a board of trustees.
Monopoly When a trust gains complete control of an industry, including price and quality.
Andrew Carnegie Became a titan in the steel industry, using the Bessemer process to produce steel more quickly
John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil and created a monopoly in the oil industry, owning over 90% of all oil companies.
Vertical Integration ownership of businesses involved in every step of the manufacturing process.
Horizontal Integreation ownership of several companies that all produce the same product.
Cornelius Vanderbilt Bought up and controlled over 4500 miles of railway and controlled much of the shipping business. Richest man ever.
George Westinghouse Invented the air brakes that allowed trains to go faster and pull more cargo.
George Pullman Manufactured luxury passenger train cars. Built an entire town for his workers so he could regulate them more.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act Law prohibiting monopolies, trusts, and restrained trade. Didn't work.
Knights of Labor One of the first national unions in the United States. Organized in 1869, ad by 1879 it included workers of different genders, races and skills. Had over 700,000 members.
Great Upheval 1886. Year of intense worker strikes and violent labor confrontations in the US.
Anarchists People who oppose all forms of government.
Homestead Strike Workers protested a wage cut at Carnegie's house and carnegie hired 300 guards t lock them out of work. Resulted in 16 deaths.
Pullman Strike Pullman lowered wages but not rent, so workers went on strike. Rail workers stopped train traffic in support. Troops were called in to restore order.
Haymarket Square Riot 40,000 workers joined a strike for 8 hour work days, but anarchists took over and set off a bomb that killed two people.
Working Conditions People worked 12 hours with no breaks. They were paid pennies a day fro their work, and no one was spared. Men, women and children all worked. They often got hurt, and their pay was not enough to support them.
Created by: rmcinnis