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Unit 5 Vocabulary

Vocab.

TermDefinition
The Jungle Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel about unsanitary conditions in meatpacking plants.
Extractive industry Business that take mineral resources from the earth.
Tammany Hall a political machine in New York City.
Pendleton Act An 1883 federal law that limited patronage by creating a civil service commission to administer exams for certain nonmilitary government jobs.
Temperance movement A reform movement calling for moderation in drinking alcohol.
Muckraker A journalist who wrote about social, environmental, and political problems Americans faced in the early 1900's.
Infrastucture the facilities or equipment required for an organization or community to function, including roads, sewage and power systems, and transportation.
Political machine an organization consisting of full-time politicians whose main goal was to retain political power and the money and influence that went with it.
Patronage the practice of politicians giving jobs to friends and supporters.
Civil service nonmilitary government employees.
Hull house the first settlement house in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) a group formed by leading suffragists in the late 1800s to organize the woman's suffrage movement.
Tuskegee Institute a vocational college for African Americans in Alabama, founded by Booker T. Washington.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) a group formed in 1909 to fight through the courts to end segregation and ensure that African American men could exercise voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment.
Progressive a member of a social and political movement of the early 1900s committed to improving conditions in American life.
activist a person dedicated to the cause of reform and prepared to use political action toward that goal
recall the process by which voters con remove an elected official before his or her term expires.
initiative a lawmaking reform enabling citizens to propose and pass a law directly without the state legislature.
referendum a lawmaking reform that allows a law passed by a state legislature to be placed on the ballot for approval or rejection by the voters.
Pure Food and Drug Act a 1906 federal law that established the Food and Drug Administration to test and approve drugs before they go to market.
Federal Reserve System the central banking authority of the United States, which manages the nation's money supply.
Sixteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1913 allowing the federal government to impose an income tax.
Seventeenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1913 requiring the direct election of senators by popular vote.
Eighteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1919 prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages; repealed by the twenty-first Amendment in 1933.
Nineteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1920 declaring that women have the right to vote in state and national elections.
Third party a political party outside the two-party system.
Preservation the protection of wilderness lands from development.
Conservation the limited use of natural resources.
Graduated income tax an income tax requiring people with higher income tax to pay a larger percentage of their earnings than people with lower incomes.
prohidition a ban on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages