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unit 5 vocab

the jungle Upton Sinclair’s 1906 novel about unsanitary conditions in meat packing plants extractive industry - businesses that take mineral resources from the earth
extractive industry A political machine in New York City
tammany hall An 1883 federal law that limited patronage by creating a civil service commission to administer exams for certain nonmilitary government jobs
pendleton hall A reform movement calling for moderation in drinking alcohol
muckraker A journalist who wrote about social, environmental, and political problems Americans faced in the early 1900s
infrastructure The facilities or equipment required for an organization or community to function, including roads, sewage and power systems, and transportation
political machine an organization consisting of full-time politicians whose main goal was to retain political power and the money and influence that went with it
patronage the practice of politicians giving jobs to friends and supporters
civil service nonmilitary government employees
Hull House the first settlement house in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) a group formed by leading suffragists in the late 1800s to organize the women’s suffrage movement
Tuskegee Institute a vocational college for African Americans in Alabama, founded by Booker T. Washington
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) A group formed in 1909 to fight through the courts to end segregation and ensure that African American men could exercise voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment
progressives a member of a social and political movement of the early 1900s committed to improving conditions in American life
activist A person dedicated to the cause of reform and prepared to use political action toward that goal
recall the process by which voters can remove an elected official before his or her term expires
initiative a lawmaking reform enabling citizens to propose and pass a law directly without the state legislature
referendum a law making reform that allows a law passed by a state legislature to be placed on the ballot for approval or rejection by the voters
Pure Food and Drug Act a 1906 federal law that established the Food and Drug Administration to test and approve drugs before they go to market
Federal Reserve System the central banking authority of the united States, which manages the nation’s money supply
Sixteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1913 allowing the federal government to impose an income tax
Seventeenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1913 requiring the direct election of senators by popular vote
Eighteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1919 prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages; repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in 1933
Nineteenth Amendment a constitutional change ratified in 1920 declaring that women have the right to vote in state and national elections
third party a political party outside the two-party system
preservation the protection of wilderness lands from development
conservation the limited use of natural resources
graduated income tax an income tax requiring people with higher incomes to pay a larger percentage of their earnings than people with lower incomes
prohibition a ban on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages
Created by: rickeyhart
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