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Genetics

Gentics

TermDefinition
Heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another
Hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule
Purebred bred from parents of the same breed or variety
Trait a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
Offspring a person's child or children
Gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Dominant Allle An individual with one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene will have the dominant phenotype
Recessive Allele For a recessive allele to produce a recessive phenotype, the individual must have two copies, one from each parent.
Homozygous is a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes.
Heterozygous occurs when an individual has two different alleles of a gene.
Genotype the genetic constitution of an indisiual organism.
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
Haploid having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Mutation transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes
Inserttion a thing that is inserted, in particular
Deletion the loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome
Substitution the action of replacing someone or something with another person or thing
Sex-linked genes A particularly important category of genetic linkage has to do with the X and Y sex chromosomes
Carrier a person or thing that carries, holds, or conveys something
Sex chromosomes a type of chromosome that participates in sex determination.
Genetic disorder is an illness caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth
Pedigree the recorded ancestry, especially upper-class ancestry, of a person or family
Selective breeding is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits.
Inbreeding breed from closely related people or animals, especially over many generations.
Hybridization is the idea that atomic orbitals fuse to form newly hybridized orbitals, which in turn, influences molecular geometry and bonding properties. Hybridization is also an expansion of the valence bond theory.
Clone an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells, produced asexually from one ancestor or stock, to which they are genetically identical
aGenetic egineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism.
Gene therapy the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
Genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics
fetilization the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
probability the extent to which something is probable; the likelihood of something happening or being the case
punnett square predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C. Punnett, who devised the approach, and is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring's having a particular genotype.
codominance A genetic scenario where neither allele is dominant or recessive and both get expressed is known as codominance
messager RNA the form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome
transfer RNA RNA consisting of folded molecules that transport amino acids from the cytoplasm of a cell to a ribosome
multiple alleles the dominant of the two having its phenotype expressed in a heterozygote
karyotype the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species
genome the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism
Created by: N Rodriguez
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