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Chap 11&12 vocab

AP US History - McCahon

Thomas Jefferson Started the democratic republican political party. Believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution, except for when it helped him. ex. federal bank vs Louisiana.
James Monroe James Monroe was sent to Paris in 1803 to buy New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east for a maximum of ten million dollars. He bought Louisiana for 15mil. Monroe later became James Madison's secretary of state.
William Clark Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and fur
Albert Gallatin Albert Gallatin was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget
Robert Livingston Robert Livingston bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He spent more than Jefferson told him to so TJ was upset.
Zebulon Pike A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land. He has set up the portal to allow people to migrate toward west.
John Marshall Appointed by John Adams ( 1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the Jeffersonians. Magnified the authority of the court.
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon was the French military genius who sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1804. He needed the money to finance his war with Britain.
Aaron Burr Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain.
William Marbury (1801) President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place. (Marbury vs. Madison).
Toussaint L' Overture L' Overture skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo. The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. Prompted Napoleon's decisio
Samuel Chase Samuel Chase was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. Appointed to the US Supreme Court by Washington
Meriwether Lewis Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The expedition was one of the main explorations of the West. The area explored was: The Missouri River through the Rocky Mountains.
Patronage Patronage is like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered patronage. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when elec
Judicial Review John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. "Judicial review" was accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison, and John Marshall
Impeachment Impeachment is to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Doesn't happen often.
Impressment The forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years. Many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen, this caused war of 1812.
Economic Coercion The English navy stole American sailors from 1806 until 1811 angering Jefferson and the country. Jefferson, however, did not wish to engage in war with England because of the countries weak navy and army. Came up with Embargo Act - didn't work.
Writ In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a government entity in the name of the sovereign power. In most cases, this government entity is a court. Two kinds of writs are warrants and prerogative writs, but there are many others.
Tribunal Tribune who administered justice: tribunal. See Tribune. The seat of a judge; the bench on which a judge and his associates sit for administering justice. Hence, a court or forum; as, the House of Lords, in England, is the highest tribunal in the kingdom.
Pacifist Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. Against violence and aggression.
Corsair A pirate along the Barbary Coast. Can be a swift pirate ship. Pirates of the North African Barbary States who had long made a national industry of blackmailing and plundering merchant ships that ventured into the Mediterranean. Some people were forced to
Cede To surrender possession of especially by treaty.
Precedent Precedent is the principle in law of using the past in order to assist in current interpretation and decision-making. Two types, binding and advisory.
Noninterventionist Citizens of the United States who felt that the newly forming government should not get involved on any level with other countries. These noninterventionists agreed with Washington’s and Jefferson’s policies toward foreign relations.
Sectionalists The War of 1812, Panic of 1819, and Missouri Crisis agitated political relations among the North, South, and West after 1820. They divided over such issues as tariff policy, slavery, land policy, banking, and internal improvements. Sectionalists were thos
Conscription Conscription or mandatory military service, is a general term for government policies that require citizens to serve in their armed forces. How soldiers for the Civil War were supplied.
Frigate Either of two different types of warships. Adapted and made into a modern version.
Broadside A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare.
Embargo Legal action by a government or group of governments restricting the departure of vessels or movement of goods from some or all locations to one or more countries. Tool of economic warfare.
Inquisitorial An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the judge's role is that of an impartial referee while the jury decides.
Judiciary Act of 1789 The Judiciary Act of 1789 established a United States Supreme Court of six judges, provided 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts. In addition, it established the Supreme Court as the mediator of all disputes between states and the federal government. C
Battle of Austerlitz Battle Napoleon won which captured the Austrian capital.
Judiciary Act of 1801 The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed by the Federalist congress . It was one of the last laws passed by the federalist congress. It allows the Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in congress. This act brought
Orders in Council The Orders in Council was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793. It was when the British were fighting the French. American & British port vessels/ships were seized. Caused war of 1812.
The Revolution of 1800 Some observers have regarded Jefferson's election in 1800 as revolutionary since the change from Federalist leadership to Republican was entirely legal and bloodless. The Federalists lost control of both the presidency and the Congress.
Midnight Judges a nickname given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms.
The Chesapeake Incident A US ship was captured by a British ship. British seized American soldiers - example of impressment which was a major cause of the War of 1812.
Marbury vs. Madison Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up contorversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not,
Embargo Act The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britian and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and siezing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so J
Louisiana Purchase Treaty In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass streched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pr
Non-Intercoarse Act Formaly reopened trade with all nations except England and Franceon March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Repeblican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of
James Monroe 5th President; leader of the Democratic-Republican party; issued Monroe Doctrine in 1823; Missouri Compromise was during his presidency.
John Marshall Chief Justice who represented the Federalist belief for a strong central government. Strengthened the Judicial branch and set the standard for future Chief Justices.
John C. Calhoun Vice President who advocated slavery and state’s rights. During the early 1830s, he led the nullification movement, which maintained that when a state found a federal law unacceptable, the state had the right to declare the law null. Helped lead to Civil
John Quincy Adams Puritan; Monroe’s Secretary of State, helped write much of the Monroe Doctrine. He led five American peace-makers to Ghent to draw up a treaty between America and Britain to end the War of 1812. The treaty was signed by both sides.
Daniel Webster Nationalist from New Hampshire who was involved in the Webster-Haynes debate over states' rights. He served as Secretary of State. Ran for president but lost to Martin Van Buren.
Andrew Jackson 7th president. He became a general in 1812 and was the leader in the Battle of New Orleans. Introduced the spoils system.
Henry Clay Clay was a Political Scientist and Congressman in 1820s. He developed the American System which US adopted after the War of 1812. The American System created a protective tariff to American Markets. installed better transportation
James Madison Author of Constitution and Bill of Rights; father of Federalist party; vice president under Jefferson; 4th president (during war of 1812). Great statesman, not a strong president.
Thomas Macdonough Naval officer; took part in the burning of the captured Philadelphia and the attack on the Tripolitan gunboats in Tropolitan War. In war of 1812, won one of the most significant naval battles in US history.
Tecumseh Shawnee Indian twin brother to the Prophet. United other tribes as a stand against western settlers. Died in Battle of Thames fighting for the British. Considered most gifted and noble Indian leaders in American history.
The (Shawnee) Prophet Banded together many of the tribes along the Mississippi River in 1811 to stop the white settlers from pushing farther into the western wilderness.
William Henry Harrison General, Indian fighter, president in March-April 1841. Hero of Battle of Tippecanoe and Thames in War of 1812.Major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay, redcoats from massacres, and gaining and clearing land in the west.
Oliver Hazard Perry American naval officer; managed a fleet on the shores of Lake Erie in 1813; captured a British fleet on Lake Erie, his victory slogan "We have met the enemy and they are ours" brought new life and inspiration to the American troops, he was a war hero
Nationalism Devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation. Helped to stabilize our country.
Peculiar institution Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty
Protective Tariff It was a tariff imposing 8% on the value of dutiable imports. It was passed by the first Congress. Revenue was the main goal. It was also designed to protect small industries just getting started. Part of Hamilton's economic plan to support the industrial
Internal improvements Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. This would allow industrialization to prosper.
Sectionalism Sectionalism is a narrow-minded concern for a devotion to the interests of one section of the country. This caused the development of two political parties. Washington disagreed with sectionalism. The country split politically.
Isolationism Isolationism deals woth the Americans trying to separate themselves from foreign affairs. Isolationism takes place on North America and the oceans around it. Washington tries to separate the Americans from all British and foreign continents.
Corsair A pirate, especially along the Barbary Coast. A swift pirate ship, often operating with official sanction.
Wildcat Bank Refers to a particularly unsound and risky bank chartered under state law in the United States. They flourished during the occasional panic) during the long period of unregulated state banking, from 1816 to 1863. Issued currency at high risk.
Manhood Suffrage Universal suffrage (the privilege of voting) restricted to male voters only.
Conscription Compulsory enrollment, especially for the armed forces; draft. Enable the French Republic, Napoleon, and Muhammad Ali (of Egypt) to build large armies.
Reaction (Reactionary) An opposition to progress or liberalism. (An extremely conservative person that not only resists change but seeks to return to the “good old days” of an earlier social order.)
Belligerent eager to fight; hostile or aggressive
Expansionist A nation's practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion. An expansionist would be one supporting this idea. As part of the idea of Manifest Destiny, America sought to expand from coast-to-coast.
Nationalistic A supporter of nationalism
Hodgepodge A mixture of dissimilar ingredients/things; a jumble.
Man-of-war an armed naval vessel. The term often refers to ships armed with cannon and propelled primarily by sails as opposed to a galley – propelled primarily by oars.
Ship of the line A warship having at least two gun decks, armed powerfully enough to take a position in the line of battle. In the great naval wars of the 17th, 18th, and early 19th cent., ships of the line were the largest naval units employed.
Sloop A single-masted, fore-and-aft-rigged sailing boat with a short standing bowsprit or none at all and a single headsail set from the forestay. These vessels played an active role in the American Revolution and the French Revolutionary Wars.
Mediation An attempt to bring about a peaceful settlement or compromise between disputants through the objective intervention of a neutral party.
Armistice In international law, a suspension or temporary cessation of hostilities by agreement between belligerent powers
War Hawks The War Hawks were a group of young Republicans from southern and western states who pressed for war against Great Britain in 1810-1811. Gained significant political power with House of Reps.
Second Bank of the U.S. Because the War of 1812 left a large debt and inflation surged ever upward due to the ever-increasing amount of notes issued by private banks., Alexander Hamilton signed a charter for this new bank in 1816.
McCulloch vs. Maryland Trial during chief Justice John Marshall’s reign; involving the state of Maryland& their right to tax the federal bank--sets precedent for the "loose clause"--increased power of Federal government.
Tariff of 1816 caused by British cutting prices below cost in an effort to strangle the American war-baby factories in the cradle. Americans saw British seeking to crush Yankee factories. Nationalist Congress passed the Tariff(1816)- created taxes on imports to protect
Cohens vs. Virginia The Cohens were a Virginia family accused of selling lottery tickets illegally. The Virginia Supreme Court found the Cohens guilty, so they appealed to the Supreme Court in 1821. Virginia won in having the Cohens convicted. Virginia lost in that Judge Mar
American System A plan proposed by Henry Clay, in 1824, to work on economic reform. Henry Clay wanted to help stabilize the country and begin the pursuit for world recognition. The plan called for a protective tariff to be put in place for the manufacturers, a new Federa
Gibbons vs. Ogden This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshall sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's deci
Bonus Bill of 1817 Securing funding for roads and canals was hard. This bill was passed by Congress to give states $1.5 million for internal improvements, but it was immediately vetoed by President Madison. In his opinion, he believed states should pay for their own improve
Fletcher vs. Peck 1810; The Georgia legislature, swayed by a bribe, gave 35 million acres of Mississippi land to private speculators. The next legislature cancelled the original ruling. Then the Supreme Court decided the grant was a contract and state law cannot impair con
Virginia dynasty A phrase from the nineteenth century; it points out that four of the first five presidents (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe) were from Virginia.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward The legislature of New Hampshire, in 1816, without the consent of the college trustees, amended the charter of 1769 to make Dartmouth College public. The trustees brought suit. Daniel Webster argued successfully that the amendment violated the Constitutio
Era of Good Feelings The years of Monroe's presidency, during 1817-1825 people had good feelings caused by the nationalistic pride after the Battle of New Orleans and second war for Independence with British, only one political party was present, on the surface everything loo
Treaty of 1818 A negotiated treaty between the Monroe administration and England. This treaty came after the War of 1812 to settle disputes between Britian and U.S. It permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries w/ the Canadians, and fixed the vague northern lim
Panic of 1819 First major financial crisis in America. It featured widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing. It marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812. The primary cause of th
Monroe Doctrine An expression of the post-1812 nationalism energizing the U.S. Proved to be the most famous of the long-lived offspring of that nationalism. Might have been called the Self-Defense Doctrine. Where & When: Incorporated into President Monroe's annual messag
Tallmadge Amendment Known as the Missouri Compromise, called so because this bill was proposed by James Tallmadge.
Russo-American Treaty of 1824 gave Russian claims on the Northwest Pacific coast of North America south of 54°40'N over what Americans know as the Oregon Country to the United States.
Missouri Compromise Was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. A bill to enable the people of Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and
Macon’s Bill No. 2 1810; Intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. The law lifted all embargoes with England or France. If they stopped molesting American shipping, the United States would continue trading, bu
Tippecanoe (Battle of) November 7, 1811. The Native Americans, encouraged by their chief, Tecumseh, and by the British, became threatened by the continued U.S. advance into their territory. At the time of Harrison's expedition, Tecumseh was away and his brother, the
Treaty of Ghent 1814, agreement ending the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. It was signed at Ghent, Belgium, on Dec. 24, 1814, and ratified by the U.S. Senate in Feb., 1815. John Q. Adams and Henry Clay participated.
Hartford Convention In 1814 a regional secret convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut due to the Federalist discontent because of the lessened voting weight of New England in Congress and Electoral College due to adding states to the Union and also they were not happy w
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