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10th Grade History

10th Grade History - Chapter 1 - 8

Civilization in Mexico subjugated by the Spanish conquistadors Aztec
Spanish adventurer who crossed the Isthmus of Panama and was the first to see the Pacific Ocean in 1513 Balboa
A Genoese who discovered Newfoundland & Cape Breton Island for England Cabot
French explorer who sailed up the St. Lawrence River to the site of Montreal in 1535, but his colonizing efforts in 1541 ended in failure in 1534-36 Cartier
He founded the 1st permanent French colony at Quebec in 1608 Champlain
Most famous of the Spanish conquistadors, he subjugated Mexico Cortez
Sailing for Spain, he discovered the West Indies and really opened America to Europe in 1492 Columbus
Portuguese captain who 1st sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, 1488 Dias
Elizabethan sea-captain, noted for his raids against the Spanish and for his circumnavigation of the world Drake
This Italian city produced such famous explorers as Columbus and Cabot Genoa
He claimed Newfoundland for England in 1583 Gilbert
"The Navigator" - This Portuguese prince created a school for maritime adventurers & sent out several expeditions of exploration Henry
An English explorer who claimed Manhattan Island for the Dutch, 1609 Hudson
Peoples of Ecuador & Peru who were conquered by the Spanish Incas
Portuguese mariner who headed a Spanish expedition which was the first to circumnavigate the world 1519-1522 Magellan
Their greater accuracy, combined with improved rudders & magnetic compasses, made possible navigation over much wider distances away from land Maps
Venetian merchant who was one of the 1st Europeans to make contact with China in the 13th century Marco Polo
Spanish conquistador noted for his conquest of the Incas Pizarro
English adventurer who tried to found a colony on Roanoke Island Raleigh
This European nation created an empire in Central & South America Spain
European merchants obtained them in the East for cloth, guns, etc. Spices
Portuguese sailor who followed the east coast of Africa to India in 1497-99 Vasco Da Gama
As the Atlantic ports increased in importance, this great Italian city ceased to be as important as the "gateway" to Europe Venice
A Florentine businessman & sailor, he concluded that he was not exploring Asia, but rather a New World..."America" Vespucci
Three most important motives behind European expansion Gospel, Glory & Gold
Iberville's brother, he founded New Orleans as a French post in 1718 Bienville
The founder of Detroit, 1701 Cadillac
Spanish explorer who failed to find the mythical "Seven Cities of Cibola" but did begin exploration of the American Southwest Coronado
Spanish explorer of Florida and the future Gulf States, he reached the Mississippi River in 1541 De Soto
Explored by Ponce de Leon, Panfilo de Narvaez and Hernando de Soto Florida
With his partner, Radisson, he explored the Lake Superior area and later, working for the English, helped to establish the Hudson's Bay Company Groseilliers
Members of the Society of Jesus - both French and Spanish missionaries served in the New World Jesuits
French explorer, with Father Marquette, he discovered and mapped much of the Upper Mississippi Valley Joliet
In 1681-82, this French explorer followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed "Louisiana" for the King of France La Salle
Seeker of the "fountain of youth" Ponce de Leon
Jesuit priest and scholar, he helped to explore Lake Michigan and the Upper Mississippi River Marquette
The first permanent French colony in North America was established here in 1608 Quebec
Reports sent back to France by the Jesuits, they helped to arouse interest in Europe in missionary work and exploration in North America Relations
Franciscan missionaries helped to establish this California City in 1769 San Diego
Motives behind the French and Spanish exploration in North America Spanish Gold or French Furs
Went to the Near East after the Crusades Traders
Produced masterpieces that won them lasting fame Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci & Raphael
Painters and scholars produced fine works for their personal enjoyment Kings & Princes
Began using gunpowder during the 1300's Soldiers
Most of them experienced a renewed interest in culture and learning by the end of the 1400's Western Europeans
His crew sailed around the world Ferdinand Magellan
Sailed around Africa to India Vasco da Gama
Claimed the St. Lawrence River Valley for France Jacques Cartier
Discovered a New World Christopher Columbus
Claimed eastern North America for England John Cabot
Considered the world's greatest playwright William Shakespeare
Wrote about man's thoughts, action & feelings Erasmus
Conducted scientific experiments Galileo
Encouraged rulers to use any means to stay in power Machiavelli
Supported the work of painters and writers Medici Family
The Catholic Church called him a heretic Martin Luther
Wrote about the travels of a mad knight Cervantes
French heroine in the Hundred Years' War Joan of Arc
Helped increase Europe's supply of books Johannes Gutenberg
Studied the movement of planets around the sun Copernicus
The English defeated its Armada Spain
The Renaissance began in this country Italy
Controlled Mediterranean trade routes Venice and Genoa
Sent settlers to the Thirteen Colonies England
1 in every 4 people died from the Black Death here Europe
Land next to the ocean Coastline
Area receiving less than 10 inches of rain in a year Desert
Soil deposited at the mouth of a river Delta
A pass through the mountains Gap
A large area of high, mostly flat land Plateau
One of the largest land areas in the world Continent
Land completely surrounded by water Island
A large body of water along the coast Gulf
A point of land reaching out into a body of water Cape
Where a river flows into a body of water River Mouth
Land area drained by a river and its tributaries Basin
The direction in which a stream flows Downstream
A line of mountains Range
A small body of water along the coast Bay
Deep-water port, usually next to a city Harbor
Low area between hills or mountains Valley
Land almost completely surrounded by water Peninsula
The direction toward where the river begins Upstream
A large area of flat land Plains
A narrow valley with steep sides Canyon
Where a river begins River Source
The highest point on a mountain Peak
A body of water completely surrounded by land Lake
Narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land Isthmus
Narrow strip of water connecting two larger bodies of water Strait or Channel
South American part of the Spanish empire Peru
People of mixed Spanish and Native American descent Mestizos
Towns that were centers of trade Pueblos
Explored what is now the south-western United States Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
The largest group of people in Spain's empire Native Americans
Caribbean Islands, Central America & Mexico New Spain
Explored area that is now South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi & Tennessee Hernando de Soto
Lands on the northern borders of Spanish territory Borderlands
First of 21 missions built in California San Diego
People born in Spain, who held the highest positions in colonial society Peninsulares
Religious communities where some Native Americans lived and worked Missions
Oldest city in the United States that was founded by Europeans St. Augustine
People of Spanish descent born in New Spain Creoles
Spanish forts Presidios
Governor of either New Spain or Peru Viceroy
The 3 major oceans that touch the Americas Atlantic, Pacific & Arctic Oceans
Gigantic plateau that is a desert in the southern part of United States Death Valley
East of the Rockies is a broad expanse of open land known as Interior Plains
Mountains in the middle went "Breadbasket"
Large river system in North America Mississippi River
Body of water that forms part of the border between United States and Canada The Great Lakes
The usual weather pattern of a region over a long period Climate
Forces of air and water that move continually Currents
Snow, rain or sleet Precipitation
Hot, humid weather for much of the year Tropical Climate
A Mediterranean Climate California Climate
Coastal mountains create a rainy climate Pacific Northwest
Hot summers and freezing winters Grassland of the steppe
Permanently frozen layers of soil in the tundra Permafrost
Climate of northwest Alaska and upper Canada Subarctic Climate
An area with mild summers and cold winters Humid Continental Climate
Warm, humid states like Louisiana Humid Subtropical Climate
Elevation above which trees cannot grow Timberline
Term referring to the King and Queen of Spain Highnesses
The exact position of a place on Earth is measured by its distance north and south of the Equator
Five themes of geography are Location, Place, Human/Environment Interaction, Movement & Region
Time between Ancient Period and Modern Period Middle Ages
Ruled an empire in Western Europe 768-814 Charle Magne
Language that united the Muslims Arabic
Englishmen won the right of ____________ by jury Unity
_________ and writing declined in the Dark Ages Reading
Another name for the Vikings Northmen
The founder of Christianity Jesus
Muhammad was the messenger of Allah
Traders brought this product back to Europe Silk
Western Europe traded with the Near East
Many people believed Jesus was the Messiah
King of England who signed the Magna Carta King John
Invaders who destroyed the Roman Empire Barbarians
They grew during the Later Middle Ages Cities
He lost power to lords during the Dark Ages King
__________ Pillars of Islam Five
William the Conqueror led them into England Normans
Muslim holy book Koran
Each lord had his own ___________ for protection Army
The Justinian Code was a system of Law
Chosen by Jesus to preach His beliefs Disciples
People lived under one government in a nation- State
Gained power over feudal lords in France Philip
A ________ worshiped at a mosque Muslim
Eastern Roman Empire, or ______ Empire Byzantine
Hebrew, or _________ Jew
Head of the Roman Catholic Church Pope
Helped make Spain a nation-state Isabella
She inspired the French victory over England Joan of Arc
The characteristics of a good knight should have Chivarlry
They seized power from kings in the Dark Ages Lords
Organization formed by merchants, craftmen Guild
Became a nation-state after Hundred Years' War France
The ________ Church was the dominant institution in Western Europe during the Middle Ages Catholic
Muslims gave _______ to the poor Alms
Region where the Holy Land was located Near East
Byzantine emperor who created a legal system Justinian
Constantinople was Europe's greatest City
Birthplace of Jesus Bethlehem
Founder of Massachusetts John Carver, William Bradford & John Winthrop
Founder of New Hampshire Ferdinando Gorges & John Mason
Founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams
Founder of Connecticut Thomas Hooker
Founder of New York Dutch Settlers
Founder of Delaware Swedish Settlers, Peter Minuit
Founder of New Jersey John Berkeley & George Carteret
Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
Founder of Virginia John Smith
Founder of Maryland Cecil Calvert
Founder of North Carolina Group of 8 aristocrats
Founder of South Carolina Group of 8 aristocrats
Founder of Georgia James Oglesthorpe
New England Colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island & Connecticut
Middle Colonies New York, Delaware, New Jersey & Pennsylvania
Southern Colonies Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina & Georgia
Joint-Stock Company A form of business organization; pooled funds of many investors or stockholders who can indepentently sell their shares of the company
Charter A document that let officials settle and trade in a certain area in the Americas
Plantations Large farms along coastal rivers
Indentured Servants People who agreed to work a certain number of years (usually 3 to 7) in exchange for their passage to America
Burgesses Elected representatives to make laws
Royal Colony A colony under the control of the king
Puritans Members of the Anglican Church who wanted to "purify" the church
Separatists Those who left the Anglican Church
Pilgrims Travelers with a religious goal
Mayflower Compact An agreement made by Pilgrim leaders that ensured self-government
Thanksgiving A meal the Pilgrims had with their abundant harvest in the English Colonies (first one in 1621)
Great Migration The movement of English settlers to the American colonies from 1630 to 1640
Massachusetts Bay Company Company formed in 1629 by Puritans to start a colony in America
Commonwealth A self-governing political unit
Toleration The acceptance of different beliefs
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut The first American constitution, or plan of government to be written
Constitution A written plan of government
Patroons Landowners in the Dutch colonies who received rent, taxes & labor from tenant farmers
Proprietor Individual who received legal and exclusive right to a colony
Proprietary Colony A colony that was awarded to one person or a group of people by the king
Quakers A religous group that believed ALL people were equal in the sight of God
Toleration Act A guarantee that all Christians had the right to worship as they please
Naval Stores Stores that provided products such as tar, pitch and turpentine for shipbuilding
Indigo A plant that produced blue dye
Subsistence Farming Farming to produce just enough for the family's own needs
Export Products to be shipped elsewhere to be sold
Import Products that were brought in to be purchased
Triangular Trade Routes Trade routes between the British Colonies, Great Britain, Africa & West Indies
Cash Crops Food crops grown to be sold
Conestoga Wagon A large wagon that was used to transport crops to the market
Patroon Owners of the farm ground other farming tenants paid
Apprentice A trainee to a master craft worker
Urban City
Rural Country (mainly farms)
Tidewater Part of Virginia where there were slow flowing tidal rivers (Potomac, the James & the York)
Middle Passage The route between Africa and America
Slave Codes Laws that denied enslaved Africans most of their rights
Bill of Rights Rule or law that put limits on the king and queen's power (put into power by the king & queen)
Mercantilism A policy meant that to gain wealth, a country had to sell more goods than it bought
Navigation Acts Laws passed in England that controlled the colonial trade
Legislature A lawmaking body with 2 houses that worked with the governor
French inhabitants of Nova Scotia who were expelled by the British in 1755, some settled in French Louisiana Acadians
British general whose army was routed in 1755 by the French and Indians near Fort Duquesne...the "Pearl Harbor of the Seven Years' War" Braddock
Leading a force of New Englanders, he captured Fort Frontenac in 1758 which cut French communications west of Lake Ontario Bradstreet
French fort on Lake Champlain taken by General Amherst in 1759 Crown Point
French fort captured and renamed "Pittsburgh" in 1758 Duquesne
Ceded by Spain to Great Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris Florida
With George Washington, he captured Fort Duquesne in 1758 Forbes
William Henry, Ticonderoga, Beausejour, or Duquesne, for example Fort
At the Albany Congress in 1754, he proposed a "Plan of Union" for the colonies which was subsequently rejected by every colonial assembly Franklin
England's Indian allies against the French Iroquois
French fortress on Cape Breton Island taken in 1758 - it had been returned to France after its capture by Pepperell and the New England militia in 1745 Louisbourg
Vast area west of the Mississippi River ceded to Spain by France in the Treaty of Paris, 1763 Louisiana
French general who died commanding the defense of Quebec in 1759 Montcalm
Which Treaty concluded in February 1763 ending the Seven Years' War Treaty of Paris
When he became Prime Minister of Britain in 1758, the fortunes of Britain and her colonies began to improve Pitt
It lost Florida but gained Louisiana in 1763 Spain
An officer of the Virginia militia, her defeat at Great Meadows in western Pennsylvania in 1754 did not dampen an outstanding future in the military and political fields Washington
From Massachusetts, he had an important part in the capture of Fort Beausejour and the deportation of the Acadians in 1755 Winslow
Victorious British general on the Plains of Abraham, 1759 Wolfe
Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America, was located in which colony Virginia
The second permanent English settlement was made by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Massachusetts
Settlements had been made in ten of the colonies by what year 1653
The Thirteen Colonies were founded over a period of how many years 126
Which state was the more popular of the New England Colonies Massachusetts
Which state had almost as many people as New York City and Boston combined Philadelphia
Which city was the only major city in the Southern Colonies Charleston
The 350 people who lived in America in 1610 all resided in what colony Virginia
During which 10-year period did the population double? 1620-1630, 1670-1680 or 1760-1770 1620-1630
William Penn's father was a naval officer who was later knighted as Admiral Sir William Penn
Before the French & Indian War, most of the interior of North America was claimed by the French
The Thirteen Colonies and land around Hudson Bay were controlled by England
Before the war, Fort Duquesne and the city of Quebec were located in which terrority French
As a result of the French & Indian War, who lost almost all of their territory in the New World The French
After the war, which territory stretched west to the Mississippi River English
What Leeuwenhoek did to microorganisms Magnify
Encouraged experimental science Bacon
Revolution that began in the 1500's Scientific
Johannes Kepler studied the orbits of planets and discovered laws relating to Motion
"Father of Anatomy" Vesalius
Place for "light elements" Sky
Vesalius proved that Galen was Incorrect
"Father of Microbiology" Leeuwenhoek
Experiments and the scientific method will help a person find it Truth
Ancient Greek astronomer Ptolemy
Leeuwenhoek analyzed them with a microscope Muscles
The sun's gravity keeps them in an oval shaped orbit Planets
Structure of the body Anatomy
They were studied by Copernicus Spheres
Earth and water, according to Aristotle, were ______ elements Heavy
Doctors once accepted his writings as fact Salen
Believed air moved objects along Aristotle
Copernicus and Galileo were criticized by the Church for saying that it was the center of the solar system Sun
Sir Issac Newton said gravity causes objects to do this Fall
Supported the views of Ptolemy and Aristotle Church
First to say that the earth was not the center of the universe Copernicus
William Harvey studied its circulation Blood
Ptolemy said it was the center of the universe Earth
The law of _____ said a force causes an object to move or stop Inertia
Discovered the law of gravity Newton
The first Americans arrived in North America from Asia called Beringia via a Land Bridge
People who relied on their environment for food were called Hunters
The first American farmers were the people in what is now Mexico
The migration of early peoples to North America stopped about 10,000 years ago because of what Ice Age
The Anasazi were one of the groups of Native Americans called Cliff Dwellers
Homes made out of adobe bricks Pueblos
Two early groups of Mound Builders were the Adena and the Hopewell
Priests made maps of star groups and invented a 365-day Calendar
The Maya had a writing system that used symbols called Hieroglyphs
The Aztec built a great city called Tenochtitlan
Built by the Aztec to bring freshwater from the mountains to the city Aqueducts
The Inca created the largest American Empire in South America
The unpopular Aztec emperor who was killed Montezuma
The largest continent in the world is Asia
The smallest continent is Australia
The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean
The ____ divides the world into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere Prime Meridian
Columbus sailed around which ocean to discover the New World Atlantic
The New World was located in which Hemisphere Western
Brazil and Peru are countries located on the continent of South America
The _____ is a narrow waterway at the southern end of South America Strait of Magellan
The trip from Africa to America carrying slaves was called the "Middle Passage"
Left the throne during the Glorious Revolution James II
Parliament forced him to accept the Petition of Right Charles I
The Cavaliers supported him in the English Revolution Charles I
Made England into a strong naval power Henry VIII
First Stuart queen Mary II
"Good Queen Bess" of England's Golden Age Elizabeth I
Reigned when England and Scotland formed Great Britain Anne
Tried to end the Protestant Reformation Mary I
Fleet sent to punish England Spanish Amada
The war between the Lancaster and York families War of the Roses
This happened to Henry VIII six times Got Married
Period of renewed interest in arts and learning English Renaissance
Henry VII sent him to explore North America John Cabot
Ruled England after Charles I was beheaded Oliver Cromwell
Playwright during the reign of Elizabeth I William Shakespeare
Person who refused to grant Henry VIII a divorce Pope
Mother of Queen Mary I Catherine of Aragon
Lawmaking body that opposed absolute monarchy Parliament
Nickname for a Catholic Queen Bloody Mary
Also called the Church of England Anglican Church
Belief in being chosen by God to rule a country Divine Right
Who drew the "Join or Die" cartoon Benjamin Franklin
How many states were represented in Franklin's political cartoon "Join or Die" Eight
Where the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts Plymouth Rock
Dutch colony that was renamed New York New Netherland
Continent the explorers were looking for Asia
Peter Minuit bought it for the Dutch from the Indians Manhattan Island
It came to be known as the Lost Colony Roanoke
Founded the colony of Connecticut Thomas Hooker
Led the Quakers to Pennsylvania William Penn
Started a colony for poor people in English jails James Oglethorpe
Captain and leader of the Jamestown settlers John Smith
Failed in his attempt to start an English colony off the coast of North Carolina Sir Walter Raleigh
Took possession of Florida during the 1500's Spain
Henry Hudson claimed New Netherland for this country Holland
Sent the explorer Verrazano in search of a route to Asia France
Established the Thirteen Colonies England
Another name for Holland Netherlands
Where the first Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims Plymouth/Massachusetts
Passed the Toleration Act, which gave religious freedom to all Christians Maryland
Two colonies formed from one North & South Carolina
King James I gave this land area to John Mason New Hampshire
The king's church in England Church of England
Document giving permission to start a colony Charter
A cash crop grown in Virgina Tobacco
The term for the newly discovered lands in the Western Hemisphere New World
The first constitution in America Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Term meaning "a written plan of government" Constitution
Plan of government drawn up by the Pilgrims Mayflower Compact
It was the first example of representative government in America House of Burgesses
The "City of Brotherly Love" Philadelphia
Largest city in the Georgia Colony Savannah
Came to Pennsylvania for religious freedom Quakers
First granted to either friends of Charles II, it was divided in 1691 Carolina
In 1836 the Reverend Thomas Hooker led most of his congregation from Massachusetts to this colony Connecticut
Original European settlers of New York Dutch
Founded in 1732 as a refuge for poor debtors and as an outpost against Spanish aggression Georgia
First permanent English settlement, founded in May, 1607 Jamestown
George or Cecilius Calvert, founders of Maryland Lord Baltimore
It remained as part of Massachusetts until 1820 Maine
Virginia's first neighbor - its early leaders were Roman Catholics Maryland
It brought the Pilgrims from England to the coast of Massachusetts in 1620 Mayflower
Originally part of Massachusett
Created by: dubj