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Phil 2200

Intro To Logic

Deductive Intended to guarantee the conclusion. VALID OR INVALID
Inductive Intended to make the conclusion likely or probable, without guaranteeing it. (WEAK OR STRONG)
Deductive VALID If the premises were true, the conclusion would be guaranteed.
Deductive INVALID Argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given the premises are true.
Inductive STRONG It is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true.
Inductive WEAK The conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
Lexical Definition Dictionary definition
Stipulative Definition Freely assigns meaning to a completely new term, creating a usage that had never probably existed. "Foxhead" means a person whose head is filled with misinformation from listening to fox news."
Precising Definition Begins with a lexical definition of a term then propose to sharpen it by stimulating more narrow limits on its use.
Persuasive Definition Attempt to attach emotive meaning to the use of a term. Since this can only serve to confuse the literal meaning of a term , they have no legitimate use.
Theoretical Definition Special cases of stipulative or precising definitions distinguished by their attempt to establish the use of the term within the context of a broader intellectual framework.
Syllogisms An argument whose support for the conclusion comes from its form, not from the topic.
Prem = TRUE Conclusion = FALSE Deductive
Ambiguous More than one distinct meaning
Vagueness No precise conditions apply
Definiedum Word to be defined
Definiens Words that do the explaining
BROAD Definiens include to much
NARROW Definiens don't include enough
Rule #2 Should convey the essential meaning of the word being defined
Rule #3 To broad or To narrow
Rule #4 Should avoid circulatory
Rule #6 Should NOT be figurative; Should be literal
Rule #7 A lexical definition should avoid affective terminology
Rule #8 A Lexical definition should indicate the content to which the definien pertains. EXAMPLE- "Strike" means (in baseball) a pitch at which a batter swings and misses.
Almost always deductive: Mathematical arguments; syllogisms; argument by definition
Almost always inductive: Based on statistics; cause and effect; expert opinion
Conditional Statement "If.....then...."
Created by: SamanthaAli